カーネルをコンパイルするための最小要件

イントロダクション

このドキュメントでは 4.x カーネルを動作させるのに必要な最小限のソフトウェアのリストを並べています。

このドキュメントは 2.0.x カーネルにおける "Changes" ファイルが元になっており、ファイルのクレジットには同じ人間があてはまります (Jared Mauch, Axel Boldt, Alessandro Sigala 他、インターネットの数え切れないユーザー達)。

現在の最小要件

バグだと思われるような現象に出会ったら、バグだと即断する前に以下のソフトウェアのバージョン要件が満たされているか確認してください。使用しているソフトウェアのバージョンが分からない場合、記載しているコマンドを使うことで確認できます。

また、以下のリストは既に Linux カーネルが使える状態であることが前提です。さらに、環境によっては以下のツールが全て必要であるというわけではありません。例えば ISDN ハードウェアを使用していない場合、isdn4k-utils はおそらく必要ないでしょう。

プログラム バージョン バージョンをチェックするコマンド
GNU C 4.6 gcc --version
GNU make 3.81 make --version
binutils 2.20 ld -v
flex 2.5.35 flex --version
bison 2.0 bison --version
util-linux 2.10o fdformat --version
kmod 13 depmod -V
e2fsprogs 1.41.4 e2fsck -V
jfsutils 1.1.3 fsck.jfs -V
reiserfsprogs 3.6.3 reiserfsck -V
xfsprogs 2.6.0 xfs_db -V
squashfs-tools 4.0 mksquashfs -version
btrfs-progs 0.18 btrfsck
pcmciautils 004 pccardctl -V
quota-tools 3.09 quota -V
PPP 2.4.0 pppd --version
isdn4k-utils 3.1pre1 isdnctrl 2>&1|grep version
nfs-utils 1.0.5 showmount --version
procps 3.2.0 ps --version
oprofile 0.9 oprofiled --version
udev 081 udevd --version
grub 0.93 grub --version || grub-install --version
mcelog 0.6 mcelog --version
iptables 1.4.2 iptables -V
openssl & libcrypto 1.0.0 openssl version
bc 1.06.95 bc --version
Sphinx[1] 1.3 sphinx-build --version
[1]カーネルドキュメントをビルドするには Sphinx が必要です

カーネルコンパイル

GCC

gcc のバージョン要件はあなたのコンピュータに搭載されている CPU のタイプによって変わる可能性があります。

Make

カーネルをビルドするには GNU make 3.81 以上が必要です。

Binutils

The build system has, as of 4.13, switched to using thin archives (ar T) rather than incremental linking (ld -r) for built-in.a intermediate steps. This requires binutils 2.20 or newer.

pkg-config

The build system, as of 4.18, requires pkg-config to check for installed kconfig tools and to determine flags settings for use in 'make {g,x}config'. Previously pkg-config was being used but not verified or documented.

Flex

Since Linux 4.16, the build system generates lexical analyzers during build. This requires flex 2.5.35 or later.

Bison

Since Linux 4.16, the build system generates parsers during build. This requires bison 2.0 or later.

Perl

You will need perl 5 and the following modules: Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, File::Basename, and File::Find to build the kernel.

BC

You will need bc to build kernels 3.10 and higher

OpenSSL

Module signing and external certificate handling use the OpenSSL program and crypto library to do key creation and signature generation.

You will need openssl to build kernels 3.7 and higher if module signing is enabled. You will also need openssl development packages to build kernels 4.3 and higher.

システムユーティリティ

アーキテクチャの変更

DevFS has been obsoleted in favour of udev (http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/)

32-bit UID support is now in place. Have fun!

Linux documentation for functions is transitioning to inline documentation via specially-formatted comments near their definitions in the source. These comments can be combined with ReST files the Documentation/ directory to make enriched documentation, which can then be converted to PostScript, HTML, LaTex, ePUB and PDF files. In order to convert from ReST format to a format of your choice, you'll need Sphinx.

Util-linux

New versions of util-linux provide fdisk support for larger disks, support new options to mount, recognize more supported partition types, have a fdformat which works with 2.4 kernels, and similar goodies. You'll probably want to upgrade.

Ksymoops

If the unthinkable happens and your kernel oopses, you may need the ksymoops tool to decode it, but in most cases you don't. It is generally preferred to build the kernel with CONFIG_KALLSYMS so that it produces readable dumps that can be used as-is (this also produces better output than ksymoops). If for some reason your kernel is not build with CONFIG_KALLSYMS and you have no way to rebuild and reproduce the Oops with that option, then you can still decode that Oops with ksymoops.

Mkinitrd

These changes to the /lib/modules file tree layout also require that mkinitrd be upgraded.

E2fsprogs

The latest version of e2fsprogs fixes several bugs in fsck and debugfs. Obviously, it's a good idea to upgrade.

JFSutils

The jfsutils package contains the utilities for the file system. The following utilities are available:

  • fsck.jfs - initiate replay of the transaction log, and check and repair a JFS formatted partition.
  • mkfs.jfs - create a JFS formatted partition.
  • other file system utilities are also available in this package.

Reiserfsprogs

The reiserfsprogs package should be used for reiserfs-3.6.x (Linux kernels 2.4.x). It is a combined package and contains working versions of mkreiserfs, resize_reiserfs, debugreiserfs and reiserfsck. These utils work on both i386 and alpha platforms.

Xfsprogs

The latest version of xfsprogs contains mkfs.xfs, xfs_db, and the xfs_repair utilities, among others, for the XFS filesystem. It is architecture independent and any version from 2.0.0 onward should work correctly with this version of the XFS kernel code (2.6.0 or later is recommended, due to some significant improvements).

PCMCIAutils

PCMCIAutils replaces pcmcia-cs. It properly sets up PCMCIA sockets at system startup and loads the appropriate modules for 16-bit PCMCIA devices if the kernel is modularized and the hotplug subsystem is used.

Quota-tools

Support for 32 bit uid's and gid's is required if you want to use the newer version 2 quota format. Quota-tools version 3.07 and newer has this support. Use the recommended version or newer from the table above.

Intel IA32 マイクロコード

A driver has been added to allow updating of Intel IA32 microcode, accessible as a normal (misc) character device. If you are not using udev you may need to:

mkdir /dev/cpu
mknod /dev/cpu/microcode c 10 184
chmod 0644 /dev/cpu/microcode

as root before you can use this. You'll probably also want to get the user-space microcode_ctl utility to use with this.

udev

udev is a userspace application for populating /dev dynamically with only entries for devices actually present. udev replaces the basic functionality of devfs, while allowing persistent device naming for devices.

FUSE

Needs libfuse 2.4.0 or later. Absolute minimum is 2.3.0 but mount options direct_io and kernel_cache won't work.

ネットワーク

一般的な変更

If you have advanced network configuration needs, you should probably consider using the network tools from ip-route2.

パケットフィルタ / NAT

The packet filtering and NAT code uses the same tools like the previous 2.4.x kernel series (iptables). It still includes backwards-compatibility modules for 2.2.x-style ipchains and 2.0.x-style ipfwadm.

PPP

The PPP driver has been restructured to support multilink and to enable it to operate over diverse media layers. If you use PPP, upgrade pppd to at least 2.4.0.

If you are not using udev, you must have the device file /dev/ppp which can be made by:

mknod /dev/ppp c 108 0

as root.

Isdn4k-utils

Due to changes in the length of the phone number field, isdn4k-utils needs to be recompiled or (preferably) upgraded.

NFS-utils

In ancient (2.4 and earlier) kernels, the nfs server needed to know about any client that expected to be able to access files via NFS. This information would be given to the kernel by mountd when the client mounted the filesystem, or by exportfs at system startup. exportfs would take information about active clients from /var/lib/nfs/rmtab.

This approach is quite fragile as it depends on rmtab being correct which is not always easy, particularly when trying to implement fail-over. Even when the system is working well, rmtab suffers from getting lots of old entries that never get removed.

With modern kernels we have the option of having the kernel tell mountd when it gets a request from an unknown host, and mountd can give appropriate export information to the kernel. This removes the dependency on rmtab and means that the kernel only needs to know about currently active clients.

To enable this new functionality, you need to:

mount -t nfsd nfsd /proc/fs/nfsd

before running exportfs or mountd. It is recommended that all NFS services be protected from the internet-at-large by a firewall where that is possible.

mcelog

On x86 kernels the mcelog utility is needed to process and log machine check events when CONFIG_X86_MCE is enabled. Machine check events are errors reported by the CPU. Processing them is strongly encouraged.

カーネルドキュメント

Sphinx

Please see Sphinx のインストール in Documentation/doc-guide/sphinx.rst for details about Sphinx requirements.

最新のソフトウェアの入手先

カーネルドキュメント