libATA 開発者ガイド

Author:Jeff Garzik

Introduction

libATA is a library used inside the Linux kernel to support ATA host controllers and devices. libATA provides an ATA driver API, class transports for ATA and ATAPI devices, and SCSI<->ATA translation for ATA devices according to the T10 SAT specification.

This Guide documents the libATA driver API, library functions, library internals, and a couple sample ATA low-level drivers.

libata Driver API

struct ata_port_operations is defined for every low-level libata hardware driver, and it controls how the low-level driver interfaces with the ATA and SCSI layers.

FIS-based drivers will hook into the system with ->qc_prep() and ->qc_issue() high-level hooks. Hardware which behaves in a manner similar to PCI IDE hardware may utilize several generic helpers, defining at a bare minimum the bus I/O addresses of the ATA shadow register blocks.

struct ata_port_operations

Disable ATA port

void (*port_disable) (struct ata_port *);

Called from ata_bus_probe() error path, as well as when unregistering from the SCSI module (rmmod, hot unplug). This function should do whatever needs to be done to take the port out of use. In most cases, ata_port_disable() can be used as this hook.

Called from ata_bus_probe() on a failed probe. Called from ata_scsi_release().

Post-IDENTIFY device configuration

void (*dev_config) (struct ata_port *, struct ata_device *);

Called after IDENTIFY [PACKET] DEVICE is issued to each device found. Typically used to apply device-specific fixups prior to issue of SET FEATURES - XFER MODE, and prior to operation.

This entry may be specified as NULL in ata_port_operations.

Set PIO/DMA mode

void (*set_piomode) (struct ata_port *, struct ata_device *);
void (*set_dmamode) (struct ata_port *, struct ata_device *);
void (*post_set_mode) (struct ata_port *);
unsigned int (*mode_filter) (struct ata_port *, struct ata_device *, unsigned int);

Hooks called prior to the issue of SET FEATURES - XFER MODE command. The optional ->mode_filter() hook is called when libata has built a mask of the possible modes. This is passed to the ->mode_filter() function which should return a mask of valid modes after filtering those unsuitable due to hardware limits. It is not valid to use this interface to add modes.

dev->pio_mode and dev->dma_mode are guaranteed to be valid when ->set_piomode() and when ->set_dmamode() is called. The timings for any other drive sharing the cable will also be valid at this point. That is the library records the decisions for the modes of each drive on a channel before it attempts to set any of them.

->post_set_mode() is called unconditionally, after the SET FEATURES - XFER MODE command completes successfully.

->set_piomode() is always called (if present), but ->set_dma_mode() is only called if DMA is possible.

Taskfile read/write

void (*sff_tf_load) (struct ata_port *ap, struct ata_taskfile *tf);
void (*sff_tf_read) (struct ata_port *ap, struct ata_taskfile *tf);

->tf_load() is called to load the given taskfile into hardware registers / DMA buffers. ->tf_read() is called to read the hardware registers / DMA buffers, to obtain the current set of taskfile register values. Most drivers for taskfile-based hardware (PIO or MMIO) use ata_sff_tf_load() and ata_sff_tf_read() for these hooks.

PIO data read/write

void (*sff_data_xfer) (struct ata_device *, unsigned char *, unsigned int, int);

All bmdma-style drivers must implement this hook. This is the low-level operation that actually copies the data bytes during a PIO data transfer. Typically the driver will choose one of ata_sff_data_xfer(), or ata_sff_data_xfer32().

ATA command execute

void (*sff_exec_command)(struct ata_port *ap, struct ata_taskfile *tf);

causes an ATA command, previously loaded with ->tf_load(), to be initiated in hardware. Most drivers for taskfile-based hardware use ata_sff_exec_command() for this hook.

Per-cmd ATAPI DMA capabilities filter

int (*check_atapi_dma) (struct ata_queued_cmd *qc);

Allow low-level driver to filter ATA PACKET commands, returning a status indicating whether or not it is OK to use DMA for the supplied PACKET command.

This hook may be specified as NULL, in which case libata will assume that atapi dma can be supported.

Read specific ATA shadow registers

u8   (*sff_check_status)(struct ata_port *ap);
u8   (*sff_check_altstatus)(struct ata_port *ap);

Reads the Status/AltStatus ATA shadow register from hardware. On some hardware, reading the Status register has the side effect of clearing the interrupt condition. Most drivers for taskfile-based hardware use ata_sff_check_status() for this hook.

Write specific ATA shadow register

void (*sff_set_devctl)(struct ata_port *ap, u8 ctl);

Write the device control ATA shadow register to the hardware. Most drivers don't need to define this.

Select ATA device on bus

void (*sff_dev_select)(struct ata_port *ap, unsigned int device);

Issues the low-level hardware command(s) that causes one of N hardware devices to be considered 'selected' (active and available for use) on the ATA bus. This generally has no meaning on FIS-based devices.

Most drivers for taskfile-based hardware use ata_sff_dev_select() for this hook.

Private tuning method

void (*set_mode) (struct ata_port *ap);

By default libata performs drive and controller tuning in accordance with the ATA timing rules and also applies blacklists and cable limits. Some controllers need special handling and have custom tuning rules, typically raid controllers that use ATA commands but do not actually do drive timing.

Warning

This hook should not be used to replace the standard controller tuning logic when a controller has quirks. Replacing the default tuning logic in that case would bypass handling for drive and bridge quirks that may be important to data reliability. If a controller needs to filter the mode selection it should use the mode_filter hook instead.

Control PCI IDE BMDMA engine

void (*bmdma_setup) (struct ata_queued_cmd *qc);
void (*bmdma_start) (struct ata_queued_cmd *qc);
void (*bmdma_stop) (struct ata_port *ap);
u8   (*bmdma_status) (struct ata_port *ap);

When setting up an IDE BMDMA transaction, these hooks arm (->bmdma_setup), fire (->bmdma_start), and halt (->bmdma_stop) the hardware's DMA engine. ->bmdma_status is used to read the standard PCI IDE DMA Status register.

These hooks are typically either no-ops, or simply not implemented, in FIS-based drivers.

Most legacy IDE drivers use ata_bmdma_setup() for the bmdma_setup() hook. ata_bmdma_setup() will write the pointer to the PRD table to the IDE PRD Table Address register, enable DMA in the DMA Command register, and call exec_command() to begin the transfer.

Most legacy IDE drivers use ata_bmdma_start() for the bmdma_start() hook. ata_bmdma_start() will write the ATA_DMA_START flag to the DMA Command register.

Many legacy IDE drivers use ata_bmdma_stop() for the bmdma_stop() hook. ata_bmdma_stop() clears the ATA_DMA_START flag in the DMA command register.

Many legacy IDE drivers use ata_bmdma_status() as the bmdma_status() hook.

High-level taskfile hooks

void (*qc_prep) (struct ata_queued_cmd *qc);
int (*qc_issue) (struct ata_queued_cmd *qc);

Higher-level hooks, these two hooks can potentially supercede several of the above taskfile/DMA engine hooks. ->qc_prep is called after the buffers have been DMA-mapped, and is typically used to populate the hardware's DMA scatter-gather table. Most drivers use the standard ata_qc_prep() helper function, but more advanced drivers roll their own.

->qc_issue is used to make a command active, once the hardware and S/G tables have been prepared. IDE BMDMA drivers use the helper function ata_qc_issue_prot() for taskfile protocol-based dispatch. More advanced drivers implement their own ->qc_issue.

ata_qc_issue_prot() calls ->tf_load(), ->bmdma_setup(), and ->bmdma_start() as necessary to initiate a transfer.

Exception and probe handling (EH)

void (*eng_timeout) (struct ata_port *ap);
void (*phy_reset) (struct ata_port *ap);

Deprecated. Use ->error_handler() instead.

void (*freeze) (struct ata_port *ap);
void (*thaw) (struct ata_port *ap);

ata_port_freeze() is called when HSM violations or some other condition disrupts normal operation of the port. A frozen port is not allowed to perform any operation until the port is thawed, which usually follows a successful reset.

The optional ->freeze() callback can be used for freezing the port hardware-wise (e.g. mask interrupt and stop DMA engine). If a port cannot be frozen hardware-wise, the interrupt handler must ack and clear interrupts unconditionally while the port is frozen.

The optional ->thaw() callback is called to perform the opposite of ->freeze(): prepare the port for normal operation once again. Unmask interrupts, start DMA engine, etc.

void (*error_handler) (struct ata_port *ap);

->error_handler() is a driver's hook into probe, hotplug, and recovery and other exceptional conditions. The primary responsibility of an implementation is to call ata_do_eh() or ata_bmdma_drive_eh() with a set of EH hooks as arguments:

'prereset' hook (may be NULL) is called during an EH reset, before any other actions are taken.

'postreset' hook (may be NULL) is called after the EH reset is performed. Based on existing conditions, severity of the problem, and hardware capabilities,

Either 'softreset' (may be NULL) or 'hardreset' (may be NULL) will be called to perform the low-level EH reset.

void (*post_internal_cmd) (struct ata_queued_cmd *qc);

Perform any hardware-specific actions necessary to finish processing after executing a probe-time or EH-time command via ata_exec_internal().

Hardware interrupt handling

irqreturn_t (*irq_handler)(int, void *, struct pt_regs *);
void (*irq_clear) (struct ata_port *);

->irq_handler is the interrupt handling routine registered with the system, by libata. ->irq_clear is called during probe just before the interrupt handler is registered, to be sure hardware is quiet.

The second argument, dev_instance, should be cast to a pointer to struct ata_host_set.

Most legacy IDE drivers use ata_sff_interrupt() for the irq_handler hook, which scans all ports in the host_set, determines which queued command was active (if any), and calls ata_sff_host_intr(ap,qc).

Most legacy IDE drivers use ata_sff_irq_clear() for the irq_clear() hook, which simply clears the interrupt and error flags in the DMA status register.

SATA phy read/write

int (*scr_read) (struct ata_port *ap, unsigned int sc_reg,
         u32 *val);
int (*scr_write) (struct ata_port *ap, unsigned int sc_reg,
                   u32 val);

Read and write standard SATA phy registers. Currently only used if ->phy_reset hook called the sata_phy_reset() helper function. sc_reg is one of SCR_STATUS, SCR_CONTROL, SCR_ERROR, or SCR_ACTIVE.

Init and shutdown

int (*port_start) (struct ata_port *ap);
void (*port_stop) (struct ata_port *ap);
void (*host_stop) (struct ata_host_set *host_set);

->port_start() is called just after the data structures for each port are initialized. Typically this is used to alloc per-port DMA buffers / tables / rings, enable DMA engines, and similar tasks. Some drivers also use this entry point as a chance to allocate driver-private memory for ap->private_data.

Many drivers use ata_port_start() as this hook or call it from their own port_start() hooks. ata_port_start() allocates space for a legacy IDE PRD table and returns.

->port_stop() is called after ->host_stop(). Its sole function is to release DMA/memory resources, now that they are no longer actively being used. Many drivers also free driver-private data from port at this time.

->host_stop() is called after all ->port_stop() calls have completed. The hook must finalize hardware shutdown, release DMA and other resources, etc. This hook may be specified as NULL, in which case it is not called.

Error handling

This chapter describes how errors are handled under libata. Readers are advised to read SCSI EH (Documentation/scsi/scsi_eh.txt) and ATA exceptions doc first.

Origins of commands

In libata, a command is represented with struct ata_queued_cmd or qc. qc's are preallocated during port initialization and repetitively used for command executions. Currently only one qc is allocated per port but yet-to-be-merged NCQ branch allocates one for each tag and maps each qc to NCQ tag 1-to-1.

libata commands can originate from two sources - libata itself and SCSI midlayer. libata internal commands are used for initialization and error handling. All normal blk requests and commands for SCSI emulation are passed as SCSI commands through queuecommand callback of SCSI host template.

How commands are issued

Internal commands

First, qc is allocated and initialized using ata_qc_new_init(). Although ata_qc_new_init() doesn't implement any wait or retry mechanism when qc is not available, internal commands are currently issued only during initialization and error recovery, so no other command is active and allocation is guaranteed to succeed.

Once allocated qc's taskfile is initialized for the command to be executed. qc currently has two mechanisms to notify completion. One is via qc->complete_fn() callback and the other is completion qc->waiting. qc->complete_fn() callback is the asynchronous path used by normal SCSI translated commands and qc->waiting is the synchronous (issuer sleeps in process context) path used by internal commands.

Once initialization is complete, host_set lock is acquired and the qc is issued.

SCSI commands

All libata drivers use ata_scsi_queuecmd() as hostt->queuecommand callback. scmds can either be simulated or translated. No qc is involved in processing a simulated scmd. The result is computed right away and the scmd is completed.

For a translated scmd, ata_qc_new_init() is invoked to allocate a qc and the scmd is translated into the qc. SCSI midlayer's completion notification function pointer is stored into qc->scsidone.

qc->complete_fn() callback is used for completion notification. ATA commands use ata_scsi_qc_complete() while ATAPI commands use atapi_qc_complete(). Both functions end up calling qc->scsidone to notify upper layer when the qc is finished. After translation is completed, the qc is issued with ata_qc_issue().

Note that SCSI midlayer invokes hostt->queuecommand while holding host_set lock, so all above occur while holding host_set lock.

How commands are processed

Depending on which protocol and which controller are used, commands are processed differently. For the purpose of discussion, a controller which uses taskfile interface and all standard callbacks is assumed.

Currently 6 ATA command protocols are used. They can be sorted into the following four categories according to how they are processed.

ATA NO DATA or DMA
ATA_PROT_NODATA and ATA_PROT_DMA fall into this category. These types of commands don't require any software intervention once issued. Device will raise interrupt on completion.
ATA PIO
ATA_PROT_PIO is in this category. libata currently implements PIO with polling. ATA_NIEN bit is set to turn off interrupt and pio_task on ata_wq performs polling and IO.
ATAPI NODATA or DMA
ATA_PROT_ATAPI_NODATA and ATA_PROT_ATAPI_DMA are in this category. packet_task is used to poll BSY bit after issuing PACKET command. Once BSY is turned off by the device, packet_task transfers CDB and hands off processing to interrupt handler.
ATAPI PIO
ATA_PROT_ATAPI is in this category. ATA_NIEN bit is set and, as in ATAPI NODATA or DMA, packet_task submits cdb. However, after submitting cdb, further processing (data transfer) is handed off to pio_task.

How commands are completed

Once issued, all qc's are either completed with ata_qc_complete() or time out. For commands which are handled by interrupts, ata_host_intr() invokes ata_qc_complete(), and, for PIO tasks, pio_task invokes ata_qc_complete(). In error cases, packet_task may also complete commands.

ata_qc_complete() does the following.

  1. DMA memory is unmapped.
  2. ATA_QCFLAG_ACTIVE is cleared from qc->flags.
  3. qc->complete_fn() callback is invoked. If the return value of the callback is not zero. Completion is short circuited and ata_qc_complete() returns.
  4. __ata_qc_complete() is called, which does
    1. qc->flags is cleared to zero.
    2. ap->active_tag and qc->tag are poisoned.
    3. qc->waiting is cleared & completed (in that order).
    4. qc is deallocated by clearing appropriate bit in ap->qactive.

So, it basically notifies upper layer and deallocates qc. One exception is short-circuit path in #3 which is used by atapi_qc_complete().

For all non-ATAPI commands, whether it fails or not, almost the same code path is taken and very little error handling takes place. A qc is completed with success status if it succeeded, with failed status otherwise.

However, failed ATAPI commands require more handling as REQUEST SENSE is needed to acquire sense data. If an ATAPI command fails, ata_qc_complete() is invoked with error status, which in turn invokes atapi_qc_complete() via qc->complete_fn() callback.

This makes atapi_qc_complete() set scmd->result to SAM_STAT_CHECK_CONDITION, complete the scmd and return 1. As the sense data is empty but scmd->result is CHECK CONDITION, SCSI midlayer will invoke EH for the scmd, and returning 1 makes ata_qc_complete() to return without deallocating the qc. This leads us to ata_scsi_error() with partially completed qc.

ata_scsi_error()

ata_scsi_error() is the current transportt->eh_strategy_handler() for libata. As discussed above, this will be entered in two cases - timeout and ATAPI error completion. This function calls low level libata driver's eng_timeout() callback, the standard callback for which is ata_eng_timeout(). It checks if a qc is active and calls ata_qc_timeout() on the qc if so. Actual error handling occurs in ata_qc_timeout().

If EH is invoked for timeout, ata_qc_timeout() stops BMDMA and completes the qc. Note that as we're currently in EH, we cannot call scsi_done. As described in SCSI EH doc, a recovered scmd should be either retried with scsi_queue_insert() or finished with scsi_finish_command(). Here, we override qc->scsidone with scsi_finish_command() and calls ata_qc_complete().

If EH is invoked due to a failed ATAPI qc, the qc here is completed but not deallocated. The purpose of this half-completion is to use the qc as place holder to make EH code reach this place. This is a bit hackish, but it works.

Once control reaches here, the qc is deallocated by invoking __ata_qc_complete() explicitly. Then, internal qc for REQUEST SENSE is issued. Once sense data is acquired, scmd is finished by directly invoking scsi_finish_command() on the scmd. Note that as we already have completed and deallocated the qc which was associated with the scmd, we don't need to/cannot call ata_qc_complete() again.

Problems with the current EH

  • Error representation is too crude. Currently any and all error conditions are represented with ATA STATUS and ERROR registers. Errors which aren't ATA device errors are treated as ATA device errors by setting ATA_ERR bit. Better error descriptor which can properly represent ATA and other errors/exceptions is needed.

  • When handling timeouts, no action is taken to make device forget about the timed out command and ready for new commands.

  • EH handling via ata_scsi_error() is not properly protected from usual command processing. On EH entrance, the device is not in quiescent state. Timed out commands may succeed or fail any time. pio_task and atapi_task may still be running.

  • Too weak error recovery. Devices / controllers causing HSM mismatch errors and other errors quite often require reset to return to known state. Also, advanced error handling is necessary to support features like NCQ and hotplug.

  • ATA errors are directly handled in the interrupt handler and PIO errors in pio_task. This is problematic for advanced error handling for the following reasons.

    First, advanced error handling often requires context and internal qc execution.

    Second, even a simple failure (say, CRC error) needs information gathering and could trigger complex error handling (say, resetting & reconfiguring). Having multiple code paths to gather information, enter EH and trigger actions makes life painful.

    Third, scattered EH code makes implementing low level drivers difficult. Low level drivers override libata callbacks. If EH is scattered over several places, each affected callbacks should perform its part of error handling. This can be error prone and painful.

libata Library

link iteration helper

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
the previous link, NULL to start
struct ata_port * ap
ATA port containing links to iterate
enum ata_link_iter_mode mode
iteration mode, one of ATA_LITER_*

Description

LOCKING: Host lock or EH context.

Return

Pointer to the next link.
struct ata_device * ata_dev_next(struct ata_device * dev, struct ata_link * link, enum ata_dev_iter_mode mode)

device iteration helper

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
the previous device, NULL to start
struct ata_link * link
ATA link containing devices to iterate
enum ata_dev_iter_mode mode
iteration mode, one of ATA_DITER_*

Description

LOCKING: Host lock or EH context.

Return

Pointer to the next device.
int atapi_cmd_type(u8 opcode)

Determine ATAPI command type from SCSI opcode

Parameters

u8 opcode
SCSI opcode

Description

Determine ATAPI command type from opcode.

LOCKING: None.

Return

ATAPI_{READ|WRITE|READ_CD|PASS_THRU|MISC}
void ata_tf_to_fis(const struct ata_taskfile * tf, u8 pmp, int is_cmd, u8 * fis)

Convert ATA taskfile to SATA FIS structure

Parameters

const struct ata_taskfile * tf
Taskfile to convert
u8 pmp
Port multiplier port
int is_cmd
This FIS is for command
u8 * fis
Buffer into which data will output

Description

Converts a standard ATA taskfile to a Serial ATA FIS structure (Register - Host to Device).

LOCKING: Inherited from caller.

void ata_tf_from_fis(const u8 * fis, struct ata_taskfile * tf)

Convert SATA FIS to ATA taskfile

Parameters

const u8 * fis
Buffer from which data will be input
struct ata_taskfile * tf
Taskfile to output

Description

Converts a serial ATA FIS structure to a standard ATA taskfile.

LOCKING: Inherited from caller.

unsigned long ata_pack_xfermask(unsigned long pio_mask, unsigned long mwdma_mask, unsigned long udma_mask)

Pack pio, mwdma and udma masks into xfer_mask

Parameters

unsigned long pio_mask
pio_mask
unsigned long mwdma_mask
mwdma_mask
unsigned long udma_mask
udma_mask

Description

Pack pio_mask, mwdma_mask and udma_mask into a single unsigned int xfer_mask.

LOCKING: None.

Return

Packed xfer_mask.
void ata_unpack_xfermask(unsigned long xfer_mask, unsigned long * pio_mask, unsigned long * mwdma_mask, unsigned long * udma_mask)

Unpack xfer_mask into pio, mwdma and udma masks

Parameters

unsigned long xfer_mask
xfer_mask to unpack
unsigned long * pio_mask
resulting pio_mask
unsigned long * mwdma_mask
resulting mwdma_mask
unsigned long * udma_mask
resulting udma_mask

Description

Unpack xfer_mask into pio_mask, mwdma_mask and udma_mask. Any NULL destination masks will be ignored.
u8 ata_xfer_mask2mode(unsigned long xfer_mask)

Find matching XFER_* for the given xfer_mask

Parameters

unsigned long xfer_mask
xfer_mask of interest

Description

Return matching XFER_* value for xfer_mask. Only the highest bit of xfer_mask is considered.

LOCKING: None.

Return

Matching XFER_* value, 0xff if no match found.
unsigned long ata_xfer_mode2mask(u8 xfer_mode)

Find matching xfer_mask for XFER_*

Parameters

u8 xfer_mode
XFER_* of interest

Description

Return matching xfer_mask for xfer_mode.

LOCKING: None.

Return

Matching xfer_mask, 0 if no match found.
int ata_xfer_mode2shift(unsigned long xfer_mode)

Find matching xfer_shift for XFER_*

Parameters

unsigned long xfer_mode
XFER_* of interest

Description

Return matching xfer_shift for xfer_mode.

LOCKING: None.

Return

Matching xfer_shift, -1 if no match found.
const char * ata_mode_string(unsigned long xfer_mask)

convert xfer_mask to string

Parameters

unsigned long xfer_mask
mask of bits supported; only highest bit counts.

Description

Determine string which represents the highest speed (highest bit in modemask).

LOCKING: None.

Return

Constant C string representing highest speed listed in mode_mask, or the constant C string "<n/a>".
unsigned int ata_dev_classify(const struct ata_taskfile * tf)

determine device type based on ATA-spec signature

Parameters

const struct ata_taskfile * tf
ATA taskfile register set for device to be identified

Description

Determine from taskfile register contents whether a device is ATA or ATAPI, as per "Signature and persistence" section of ATA/PI spec (volume 1, sect 5.14).

LOCKING: None.

Return

Device type, ATA_DEV_ATA, ATA_DEV_ATAPI, ATA_DEV_PMP, ATA_DEV_ZAC, or ATA_DEV_UNKNOWN the event of failure.
void ata_id_string(const u16 * id, unsigned char * s, unsigned int ofs, unsigned int len)

Convert IDENTIFY DEVICE page into string

Parameters

const u16 * id
IDENTIFY DEVICE results we will examine
unsigned char * s
string into which data is output
unsigned int ofs
offset into identify device page
unsigned int len
length of string to return. must be an even number.

Description

The strings in the IDENTIFY DEVICE page are broken up into 16-bit chunks. Run through the string, and output each 8-bit chunk linearly, regardless of platform.

LOCKING: caller.

void ata_id_c_string(const u16 * id, unsigned char * s, unsigned int ofs, unsigned int len)

Convert IDENTIFY DEVICE page into C string

Parameters

const u16 * id
IDENTIFY DEVICE results we will examine
unsigned char * s
string into which data is output
unsigned int ofs
offset into identify device page
unsigned int len
length of string to return. must be an odd number.

Description

This function is identical to ata_id_string except that it trims trailing spaces and terminates the resulting string with null. len must be actual maximum length (even number) + 1.

LOCKING: caller.

unsigned long ata_id_xfermask(const u16 * id)

Compute xfermask from the given IDENTIFY data

Parameters

const u16 * id
IDENTIFY data to compute xfer mask from

Description

Compute the xfermask for this device. This is not as trivial as it seems if we must consider early devices correctly.

FIXME: pre IDE drive timing (do we care ?).

LOCKING: None.

Return

Computed xfermask
unsigned int ata_pio_need_iordy(const struct ata_device * adev)

check if iordy needed

Parameters

const struct ata_device * adev
ATA device

Description

Check if the current speed of the device requires IORDY. Used by various controllers for chip configuration.
unsigned int ata_do_dev_read_id(struct ata_device * dev, struct ata_taskfile * tf, u16 * id)

default ID read method

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
device
struct ata_taskfile * tf
proposed taskfile
u16 * id
data buffer

Description

Issue the identify taskfile and hand back the buffer containing identify data. For some RAID controllers and for pre ATA devices this function is wrapped or replaced by the driver
int ata_cable_40wire(struct ata_port * ap)

return 40 wire cable type

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
port

Description

Helper method for drivers which want to hardwire 40 wire cable detection.
int ata_cable_80wire(struct ata_port * ap)

return 80 wire cable type

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
port

Description

Helper method for drivers which want to hardwire 80 wire cable detection.
int ata_cable_unknown(struct ata_port * ap)

return unknown PATA cable.

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
port

Description

Helper method for drivers which have no PATA cable detection.
int ata_cable_ignore(struct ata_port * ap)

return ignored PATA cable.

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
port

Description

Helper method for drivers which don't use cable type to limit transfer mode.
int ata_cable_sata(struct ata_port * ap)

return SATA cable type

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
port

Description

Helper method for drivers which have SATA cables
struct ata_device * ata_dev_pair(struct ata_device * adev)

return other device on cable

Parameters

struct ata_device * adev
device

Description

Obtain the other device on the same cable, or if none is present NULL is returned
int sata_set_spd(struct ata_link * link)

set SATA spd according to spd limit

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
Link to set SATA spd for

Description

Set SATA spd of link according to sata_spd_limit.

LOCKING: Inherited from caller.

Return

0 if spd doesn't need to be changed, 1 if spd has been changed. Negative errno if SCR registers are inaccessible.
u8 ata_timing_cycle2mode(unsigned int xfer_shift, int cycle)

find xfer mode for the specified cycle duration

Parameters

unsigned int xfer_shift
ATA_SHIFT_* value for transfer type to examine.
int cycle
cycle duration in ns

Description

Return matching xfer mode for cycle. The returned mode is of the transfer type specified by xfer_shift. If cycle is too slow for xfer_shift, 0xff is returned. If cycle is faster than the fastest known mode, the fasted mode is returned.

LOCKING: None.

Return

Matching xfer_mode, 0xff if no match found.
int ata_do_set_mode(struct ata_link * link, struct ata_device ** r_failed_dev)

Program timings and issue SET FEATURES - XFER

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
link on which timings will be programmed
struct ata_device ** r_failed_dev
out parameter for failed device

Description

Standard implementation of the function used to tune and set ATA device disk transfer mode (PIO3, UDMA6, etc.). If ata_dev_set_mode() fails, pointer to the failing device is returned in r_failed_dev.

LOCKING: PCI/etc. bus probe sem.

Return

0 on success, negative errno otherwise
int ata_wait_after_reset(struct ata_link * link, unsigned long deadline, int (*check_ready) (struct ata_link *link)

wait for link to become ready after reset

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
link to be waited on
unsigned long deadline
deadline jiffies for the operation
int (*)(struct ata_link *link) check_ready
callback to check link readiness

Description

Wait for link to become ready after reset.

LOCKING: EH context.

Return

0 if link is ready before deadline; otherwise, -errno.

debounce SATA phy status

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to debounce SATA phy status for
const unsigned long * params
timing parameters { interval, duration, timeout } in msec
unsigned long deadline
deadline jiffies for the operation

Description

Make sure SStatus of link reaches stable state, determined by holding the same value where DET is not 1 for duration polled every interval, before timeout. Timeout constraints the beginning of the stable state. Because DET gets stuck at 1 on some controllers after hot unplugging, this functions waits until timeout then returns 0 if DET is stable at 1.

timeout is further limited by deadline. The sooner of the two is used.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Return

0 on success, -errno on failure.

resume SATA link

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to resume SATA
const unsigned long * params
timing parameters { interval, duration, timeout } in msec
unsigned long deadline
deadline jiffies for the operation

Description

Resume SATA phy link and debounce it.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Return

0 on success, -errno on failure.

manipulate SControl IPM and SPM fields

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to manipulate SControl for
enum ata_lpm_policy policy
LPM policy to configure
bool spm_wakeup
initiate LPM transition to active state

Description

Manipulate the IPM field of the SControl register of link according to policy. If policy is ATA_LPM_MAX_POWER and spm_wakeup is true, the SPM field is manipulated to wake up the link. This function also clears PHYRDY_CHG before returning.

LOCKING: EH context.

Return

0 on success, -errno otherwise.
int ata_std_prereset(struct ata_link * link, unsigned long deadline)

prepare for reset

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to be reset
unsigned long deadline
deadline jiffies for the operation

Description

link is about to be reset. Initialize it. Failure from prereset makes libata abort whole reset sequence and give up that port, so prereset should be best-effort. It does its best to prepare for reset sequence but if things go wrong, it should just whine, not fail.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Return

0 on success, -errno otherwise.

reset link via SATA phy reset

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
link to reset
const unsigned long * timing
timing parameters { interval, duration, timeout } in msec
unsigned long deadline
deadline jiffies for the operation
bool * online
optional out parameter indicating link onlineness
int (*)(struct ata_link *) check_ready
optional callback to check link readiness

Description

SATA phy-reset link using DET bits of SControl register. After hardreset, link readiness is waited upon using ata_wait_ready() if check_ready is specified. LLDs are allowed to not specify check_ready and wait itself after this function returns. Device classification is LLD's responsibility.

*online is set to one iff reset succeeded and link is online after reset.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Return

0 on success, -errno otherwise.
int sata_std_hardreset(struct ata_link * link, unsigned int * class, unsigned long deadline)

COMRESET w/o waiting or classification

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
link to reset
unsigned int * class
resulting class of attached device
unsigned long deadline
deadline jiffies for the operation

Description

Standard SATA COMRESET w/o waiting or classification.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Return

0 if link offline, -EAGAIN if link online, -errno on errors.
void ata_std_postreset(struct ata_link * link, unsigned int * classes)

standard postreset callback

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
the target ata_link
unsigned int * classes
classes of attached devices

Description

This function is invoked after a successful reset. Note that the device might have been reset more than once using different reset methods before postreset is invoked.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

unsigned int ata_dev_set_feature(struct ata_device * dev, u8 enable, u8 feature)

Issue SET FEATURES - SATA FEATURES

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device to which command will be sent
u8 enable
Whether to enable or disable the feature
u8 feature
The sector count represents the feature to set

Description

Issue SET FEATURES - SATA FEATURES command to device dev on port ap with sector count

LOCKING: PCI/etc. bus probe sem.

Return

0 on success, AC_ERR_* mask otherwise.
int ata_std_qc_defer(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Check whether a qc needs to be deferred

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
ATA command in question

Description

Non-NCQ commands cannot run with any other command, NCQ or not. As upper layer only knows the queue depth, we are responsible for maintaining exclusion. This function checks whether a new command qc can be issued.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

ATA_DEFER_* if deferring is needed, 0 otherwise.
void ata_sg_init(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc, struct scatterlist * sg, unsigned int n_elem)

Associate command with scatter-gather table.

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Command to be associated
struct scatterlist * sg
Scatter-gather table.
unsigned int n_elem
Number of elements in s/g table.

Description

Initialize the data-related elements of queued_cmd qc to point to a scatter-gather table sg, containing n_elem elements.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

void ata_qc_complete(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Complete an active ATA command

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Command to complete

Description

Indicate to the mid and upper layers that an ATA command has completed, with either an ok or not-ok status.

Refrain from calling this function multiple times when successfully completing multiple NCQ commands. ata_qc_complete_multiple() should be used instead, which will properly update IRQ expect state.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

int ata_qc_complete_multiple(struct ata_port * ap, u64 qc_active)

Complete multiple qcs successfully

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
port in question
u64 qc_active
new qc_active mask

Description

Complete in-flight commands. This functions is meant to be called from low-level driver's interrupt routine to complete requests normally. ap->qc_active and qc_active is compared and commands are completed accordingly.

Always use this function when completing multiple NCQ commands from IRQ handlers instead of calling ata_qc_complete() multiple times to keep IRQ expect status properly in sync.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

Number of completed commands on success, -errno otherwise.
int sata_scr_valid(struct ata_link * link)

test whether SCRs are accessible

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to test SCR accessibility for

Description

Test whether SCRs are accessible for link.

LOCKING: None.

Return

1 if SCRs are accessible, 0 otherwise.
int sata_scr_read(struct ata_link * link, int reg, u32 * val)

read SCR register of the specified port

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to read SCR for
int reg
SCR to read
u32 * val
Place to store read value

Description

Read SCR register reg of link into *val. This function is guaranteed to succeed if link is ap->link, the cable type of the port is SATA and the port implements ->scr_read.

LOCKING: None if link is ap->link. Kernel thread context otherwise.

Return

0 on success, negative errno on failure.
int sata_scr_write(struct ata_link * link, int reg, u32 val)

write SCR register of the specified port

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to write SCR for
int reg
SCR to write
u32 val
value to write

Description

Write val to SCR register reg of link. This function is guaranteed to succeed if link is ap->link, the cable type of the port is SATA and the port implements ->scr_read.

LOCKING: None if link is ap->link. Kernel thread context otherwise.

Return

0 on success, negative errno on failure.
int sata_scr_write_flush(struct ata_link * link, int reg, u32 val)

write SCR register of the specified port and flush

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to write SCR for
int reg
SCR to write
u32 val
value to write

Description

This function is identical to sata_scr_write() except that this function performs flush after writing to the register.

LOCKING: None if link is ap->link. Kernel thread context otherwise.

Return

0 on success, negative errno on failure.

test whether the given link is online

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to test

Description

Test whether link is online. This is identical to ata_phys_link_online() when there's no slave link. When there's a slave link, this function should only be called on the master link and will return true if any of M/S links is online.

LOCKING: None.

Return

True if the port online status is available and online.

test whether the given link is offline

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to test

Description

Test whether link is offline. This is identical to ata_phys_link_offline() when there's no slave link. When there's a slave link, this function should only be called on the master link and will return true if both M/S links are offline.

LOCKING: None.

Return

True if the port offline status is available and offline.
int ata_host_suspend(struct ata_host * host, pm_message_t mesg)

suspend host

Parameters

struct ata_host * host
host to suspend
pm_message_t mesg
PM message

Description

Suspend host. Actual operation is performed by port suspend.
void ata_host_resume(struct ata_host * host)

resume host

Parameters

struct ata_host * host
host to resume

Description

Resume host. Actual operation is performed by port resume.
struct ata_host * ata_host_alloc(struct device * dev, int max_ports)

allocate and init basic ATA host resources

Parameters

struct device * dev
generic device this host is associated with
int max_ports
maximum number of ATA ports associated with this host

Description

Allocate and initialize basic ATA host resources. LLD calls this function to allocate a host, initializes it fully and attaches it using ata_host_register().

max_ports ports are allocated and host->n_ports is initialized to max_ports. The caller is allowed to decrease host->n_ports before calling ata_host_register(). The unused ports will be automatically freed on registration.

Return

Allocate ATA host on success, NULL on failure.

LOCKING: Inherited from calling layer (may sleep).

struct ata_host * ata_host_alloc_pinfo(struct device * dev, const struct ata_port_info *const * ppi, int n_ports)

alloc host and init with port_info array

Parameters

struct device * dev
generic device this host is associated with
const struct ata_port_info *const * ppi
array of ATA port_info to initialize host with
int n_ports
number of ATA ports attached to this host

Description

Allocate ATA host and initialize with info from ppi. If NULL terminated, ppi may contain fewer entries than n_ports. The last entry will be used for the remaining ports.

Return

Allocate ATA host on success, NULL on failure.

LOCKING: Inherited from calling layer (may sleep).

initialize slave link

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
port to initialize slave link for

Description

Create and initialize slave link for ap. This enables slave link handling on the port.

In libata, a port contains links and a link contains devices. There is single host link but if a PMP is attached to it, there can be multiple fan-out links. On SATA, there's usually a single device connected to a link but PATA and SATA controllers emulating TF based interface can have two - master and slave.

However, there are a few controllers which don't fit into this abstraction too well - SATA controllers which emulate TF interface with both master and slave devices but also have separate SCR register sets for each device. These controllers need separate links for physical link handling (e.g. onlineness, link speed) but should be treated like a traditional M/S controller for everything else (e.g. command issue, softreset).

slave_link is libata's way of handling this class of controllers without impacting core layer too much. For anything other than physical link handling, the default host link is used for both master and slave. For physical link handling, separate ap->slave_link is used. All dirty details are implemented inside libata core layer. From LLD's POV, the only difference is that prereset, hardreset and postreset are called once more for the slave link, so the reset sequence looks like the following.

prereset(M) -> prereset(S) -> hardreset(M) -> hardreset(S) -> softreset(M) -> postreset(M) -> postreset(S)

Note that softreset is called only for the master. Softreset resets both M/S by definition, so SRST on master should handle both (the standard method will work just fine).

LOCKING: Should be called before host is registered.

Return

0 on success, -errno on failure.
int ata_host_start(struct ata_host * host)

start and freeze ports of an ATA host

Parameters

struct ata_host * host
ATA host to start ports for

Description

Start and then freeze ports of host. Started status is recorded in host->flags, so this function can be called multiple times. Ports are guaranteed to get started only once. If host->ops isn't initialized yet, its set to the first non-dummy port ops.

LOCKING: Inherited from calling layer (may sleep).

Return

0 if all ports are started successfully, -errno otherwise.
void ata_host_init(struct ata_host * host, struct device * dev, struct ata_port_operations * ops)

Initialize a host struct for sas (ipr, libsas)

Parameters

struct ata_host * host
host to initialize
struct device * dev
device host is attached to
struct ata_port_operations * ops
port_ops
int ata_host_register(struct ata_host * host, struct scsi_host_template * sht)

register initialized ATA host

Parameters

struct ata_host * host
ATA host to register
struct scsi_host_template * sht
template for SCSI host

Description

Register initialized ATA host. host is allocated using ata_host_alloc() and fully initialized by LLD. This function starts ports, registers host with ATA and SCSI layers and probe registered devices.

LOCKING: Inherited from calling layer (may sleep).

Return

0 on success, -errno otherwise.
int ata_host_activate(struct ata_host * host, int irq, irq_handler_t irq_handler, unsigned long irq_flags, struct scsi_host_template * sht)

start host, request IRQ and register it

Parameters

struct ata_host * host
target ATA host
int irq
IRQ to request
irq_handler_t irq_handler
irq_handler used when requesting IRQ
unsigned long irq_flags
irq_flags used when requesting IRQ
struct scsi_host_template * sht
scsi_host_template to use when registering the host

Description

After allocating an ATA host and initializing it, most libata LLDs perform three steps to activate the host - start host, request IRQ and register it. This helper takes necessary arguments and performs the three steps in one go.

An invalid IRQ skips the IRQ registration and expects the host to have set polling mode on the port. In this case, irq_handler should be NULL.

LOCKING: Inherited from calling layer (may sleep).

Return

0 on success, -errno otherwise.
void ata_host_detach(struct ata_host * host)

Detach all ports of an ATA host

Parameters

struct ata_host * host
Host to detach

Description

Detach all ports of host.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

void ata_pci_remove_one(struct pci_dev * pdev)

PCI layer callback for device removal

Parameters

struct pci_dev * pdev
PCI device that was removed

Description

PCI layer indicates to libata via this hook that hot-unplug or module unload event has occurred. Detach all ports. Resource release is handled via devres.

LOCKING: Inherited from PCI layer (may sleep).

int ata_platform_remove_one(struct platform_device * pdev)

Platform layer callback for device removal

Parameters

struct platform_device * pdev
Platform device that was removed

Description

Platform layer indicates to libata via this hook that hot-unplug or module unload event has occurred. Detach all ports. Resource release is handled via devres.

LOCKING: Inherited from platform layer (may sleep).

void ata_msleep(struct ata_port * ap, unsigned int msecs)

ATA EH owner aware msleep

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to attribute the sleep to
unsigned int msecs
duration to sleep in milliseconds

Description

Sleeps msecs. If the current task is owner of ap's EH, the ownership is released before going to sleep and reacquired after the sleep is complete. IOW, other ports sharing the ap->host will be allowed to own the EH while this task is sleeping.

LOCKING: Might sleep.

u32 ata_wait_register(struct ata_port * ap, void __iomem * reg, u32 mask, u32 val, unsigned long interval, unsigned long timeout)

wait until register value changes

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to wait register for, can be NULL
void __iomem * reg
IO-mapped register
u32 mask
Mask to apply to read register value
u32 val
Wait condition
unsigned long interval
polling interval in milliseconds
unsigned long timeout
timeout in milliseconds

Description

Waiting for some bits of register to change is a common operation for ATA controllers. This function reads 32bit LE IO-mapped register reg and tests for the following condition.

(*reg & mask) != val

If the condition is met, it returns; otherwise, the process is repeated after interval_msec until timeout.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Return

The final register value.
bool sata_lpm_ignore_phy_events(struct ata_link * link)

test if PHY event should be ignored

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
Link receiving the event

Description

Test whether the received PHY event has to be ignored or not.

LOCKING: None:

Return

True if the event has to be ignored.

libata Core Internals

find physical link for a device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device to look up physical link for

Description

Look up physical link which dev is attached to. Note that this is different from dev->link only when dev is on slave link. For all other cases, it's the same as dev->link.

LOCKING: Don't care.

Return

Pointer to the found physical link.
void ata_force_cbl(struct ata_port * ap)

force cable type according to libata.force

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port of interest

Description

Force cable type according to libata.force and whine about it. The last entry which has matching port number is used, so it can be specified as part of device force parameters. For example, both "a:40c,1.00:udma4" and "1.00:40c,udma4" have the same effect.

LOCKING: EH context.

force link limits according to libata.force

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link of interest

Description

Force link flags and SATA spd limit according to libata.force and whine about it. When only the port part is specified (e.g. 1:), the limit applies to all links connected to both the host link and all fan-out ports connected via PMP. If the device part is specified as 0 (e.g. 1.00:), it specifies the first fan-out link not the host link. Device number 15 always points to the host link whether PMP is attached or not. If the controller has slave link, device number 16 points to it.

LOCKING: EH context.

void ata_force_xfermask(struct ata_device * dev)

force xfermask according to libata.force

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device of interest

Description

Force xfer_mask according to libata.force and whine about it. For consistency with link selection, device number 15 selects the first device connected to the host link.

LOCKING: EH context.

void ata_force_horkage(struct ata_device * dev)

force horkage according to libata.force

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device of interest

Description

Force horkage according to libata.force and whine about it. For consistency with link selection, device number 15 selects the first device connected to the host link.

LOCKING: EH context.

int ata_rwcmd_protocol(struct ata_taskfile * tf, struct ata_device * dev)

set taskfile r/w commands and protocol

Parameters

struct ata_taskfile * tf
command to examine and configure
struct ata_device * dev
device tf belongs to

Description

Examine the device configuration and tf->flags to calculate the proper read/write commands and protocol to use.

LOCKING: caller.

u64 ata_tf_read_block(const struct ata_taskfile * tf, struct ata_device * dev)

Read block address from ATA taskfile

Parameters

const struct ata_taskfile * tf
ATA taskfile of interest
struct ata_device * dev
ATA device tf belongs to

Description

LOCKING: None.

Read block address from tf. This function can handle all three address formats - LBA, LBA48 and CHS. tf->protocol and flags select the address format to use.

Return

Block address read from tf.
int ata_build_rw_tf(struct ata_taskfile * tf, struct ata_device * dev, u64 block, u32 n_block, unsigned int tf_flags, unsigned int tag, int class)

Build ATA taskfile for given read/write request

Parameters

struct ata_taskfile * tf
Target ATA taskfile
struct ata_device * dev
ATA device tf belongs to
u64 block
Block address
u32 n_block
Number of blocks
unsigned int tf_flags
RW/FUA etc...
unsigned int tag
tag
int class
IO priority class

Description

LOCKING: None.

Build ATA taskfile tf for read/write request described by block, n_block, tf_flags and tag on dev.

Return

0 on success, -ERANGE if the request is too large for dev, -EINVAL if the request is invalid.
int ata_read_native_max_address(struct ata_device * dev, u64 * max_sectors)

Read native max address

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
target device
u64 * max_sectors
out parameter for the result native max address

Description

Perform an LBA48 or LBA28 native size query upon the device in question.

Return

0 on success, -EACCES if command is aborted by the drive. -EIO on other errors.
int ata_set_max_sectors(struct ata_device * dev, u64 new_sectors)

Set max sectors

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
target device
u64 new_sectors
new max sectors value to set for the device

Description

Set max sectors of dev to new_sectors.

Return

0 on success, -EACCES if command is aborted or denied (due to previous non-volatile SET_MAX) by the drive. -EIO on other errors.
int ata_hpa_resize(struct ata_device * dev)

Resize a device with an HPA set

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device to resize

Description

Read the size of an LBA28 or LBA48 disk with HPA features and resize it if required to the full size of the media. The caller must check the drive has the HPA feature set enabled.

Return

0 on success, -errno on failure.
void ata_dump_id(const u16 * id)

IDENTIFY DEVICE info debugging output

Parameters

const u16 * id
IDENTIFY DEVICE page to dump

Description

Dump selected 16-bit words from the given IDENTIFY DEVICE page.

LOCKING: caller.

unsigned ata_exec_internal_sg(struct ata_device * dev, struct ata_taskfile * tf, const u8 * cdb, int dma_dir, struct scatterlist * sgl, unsigned int n_elem, unsigned long timeout)

execute libata internal command

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device to which the command is sent
struct ata_taskfile * tf
Taskfile registers for the command and the result
const u8 * cdb
CDB for packet command
int dma_dir
Data transfer direction of the command
struct scatterlist * sgl
sg list for the data buffer of the command
unsigned int n_elem
Number of sg entries
unsigned long timeout
Timeout in msecs (0 for default)

Description

Executes libata internal command with timeout. tf contains command on entry and result on return. Timeout and error conditions are reported via return value. No recovery action is taken after a command times out. It's caller's duty to clean up after timeout.

LOCKING: None. Should be called with kernel context, might sleep.

Return

Zero on success, AC_ERR_* mask on failure
unsigned ata_exec_internal(struct ata_device * dev, struct ata_taskfile * tf, const u8 * cdb, int dma_dir, void * buf, unsigned int buflen, unsigned long timeout)

execute libata internal command

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device to which the command is sent
struct ata_taskfile * tf
Taskfile registers for the command and the result
const u8 * cdb
CDB for packet command
int dma_dir
Data transfer direction of the command
void * buf
Data buffer of the command
unsigned int buflen
Length of data buffer
unsigned long timeout
Timeout in msecs (0 for default)

Description

Wrapper around ata_exec_internal_sg() which takes simple buffer instead of sg list.

LOCKING: None. Should be called with kernel context, might sleep.

Return

Zero on success, AC_ERR_* mask on failure
u32 ata_pio_mask_no_iordy(const struct ata_device * adev)

Return the non IORDY mask

Parameters

const struct ata_device * adev
ATA device

Description

Compute the highest mode possible if we are not using iordy. Return -1 if no iordy mode is available.
int ata_dev_read_id(struct ata_device * dev, unsigned int * p_class, unsigned int flags, u16 * id)

Read ID data from the specified device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
target device
unsigned int * p_class
pointer to class of the target device (may be changed)
unsigned int flags
ATA_READID_* flags
u16 * id
buffer to read IDENTIFY data into

Description

Read ID data from the specified device. ATA_CMD_ID_ATA is performed on ATA devices and ATA_CMD_ID_ATAPI on ATAPI devices. This function also issues ATA_CMD_INIT_DEV_PARAMS for pre-ATA4 drives.

FIXME: ATA_CMD_ID_ATA is optional for early drives and right now we abort if we hit that case.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Return

0 on success, -errno otherwise.
unsigned int ata_read_log_page(struct ata_device * dev, u8 log, u8 page, void * buf, unsigned int sectors)

read a specific log page

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
target device
u8 log
log to read
u8 page
page to read
void * buf
buffer to store read page
unsigned int sectors
number of sectors to read

Description

Read log page using READ_LOG_EXT command.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

Return

0 on success, AC_ERR_* mask otherwise.
int ata_dev_configure(struct ata_device * dev)

Configure the specified ATA/ATAPI device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Target device to configure

Description

Configure dev according to dev->id. Generic and low-level driver specific fixups are also applied.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Return

0 on success, -errno otherwise
int ata_bus_probe(struct ata_port * ap)

Reset and probe ATA bus

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
Bus to probe

Description

Master ATA bus probing function. Initiates a hardware-dependent bus reset, then attempts to identify any devices found on the bus.

LOCKING: PCI/etc. bus probe sem.

Return

Zero on success, negative errno otherwise.

Print SATA link status

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
SATA link to printk link status about

Description

This function prints link speed and status of a SATA link.

LOCKING: None.

int sata_down_spd_limit(struct ata_link * link, u32 spd_limit)

adjust SATA spd limit downward

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
Link to adjust SATA spd limit for
u32 spd_limit
Additional limit

Description

Adjust SATA spd limit of link downward. Note that this function only adjusts the limit. The change must be applied using sata_set_spd().

If spd_limit is non-zero, the speed is limited to equal to or lower than spd_limit if such speed is supported. If spd_limit is slower than any supported speed, only the lowest supported speed is allowed.

LOCKING: Inherited from caller.

Return

0 on success, negative errno on failure
int sata_set_spd_needed(struct ata_link * link)

is SATA spd configuration needed

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
Link in question

Description

Test whether the spd limit in SControl matches link->sata_spd_limit. This function is used to determine whether hardreset is necessary to apply SATA spd configuration.

LOCKING: Inherited from caller.

Return

1 if SATA spd configuration is needed, 0 otherwise.
int ata_down_xfermask_limit(struct ata_device * dev, unsigned int sel)

adjust dev xfer masks downward

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device to adjust xfer masks
unsigned int sel
ATA_DNXFER_* selector

Description

Adjust xfer masks of dev downward. Note that this function does not apply the change. Invoking ata_set_mode() afterwards will apply the limit.

LOCKING: Inherited from caller.

Return

0 on success, negative errno on failure
int ata_wait_ready(struct ata_link * link, unsigned long deadline, int (*check_ready) (struct ata_link *link)

wait for link to become ready

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
link to be waited on
unsigned long deadline
deadline jiffies for the operation
int (*)(struct ata_link *link) check_ready
callback to check link readiness

Description

Wait for link to become ready. check_ready should return positive number if link is ready, 0 if it isn't, -ENODEV if link doesn't seem to be occupied, other errno for other error conditions.

Transient -ENODEV conditions are allowed for ATA_TMOUT_FF_WAIT.

LOCKING: EH context.

Return

0 if link is ready before deadline; otherwise, -errno.
int ata_dev_same_device(struct ata_device * dev, unsigned int new_class, const u16 * new_id)

Determine whether new ID matches configured device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
device to compare against
unsigned int new_class
class of the new device
const u16 * new_id
IDENTIFY page of the new device

Description

Compare new_class and new_id against dev and determine whether dev is the device indicated by new_class and new_id.

LOCKING: None.

Return

1 if dev matches new_class and new_id, 0 otherwise.
int ata_dev_reread_id(struct ata_device * dev, unsigned int readid_flags)

Re-read IDENTIFY data

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
target ATA device
unsigned int readid_flags
read ID flags

Description

Re-read IDENTIFY page and make sure dev is still attached to the port.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Return

0 on success, negative errno otherwise
int ata_dev_revalidate(struct ata_device * dev, unsigned int new_class, unsigned int readid_flags)

Revalidate ATA device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
device to revalidate
unsigned int new_class
new class code
unsigned int readid_flags
read ID flags

Description

Re-read IDENTIFY page, make sure dev is still attached to the port and reconfigure it according to the new IDENTIFY page.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Return

0 on success, negative errno otherwise
int ata_is_40wire(struct ata_device * dev)

check drive side detection

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
device

Description

Perform drive side detection decoding, allowing for device vendors who can't follow the documentation.
int cable_is_40wire(struct ata_port * ap)

40/80/SATA decider

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
port to consider

Description

This function encapsulates the policy for speed management in one place. At the moment we don't cache the result but there is a good case for setting ap->cbl to the result when we are called with unknown cables (and figuring out if it impacts hotplug at all).

Return 1 if the cable appears to be 40 wire.

void ata_dev_xfermask(struct ata_device * dev)

Compute supported xfermask of the given device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device to compute xfermask for

Description

Compute supported xfermask of dev and store it in dev->*_mask. This function is responsible for applying all known limits including host controller limits, device blacklist, etc...

LOCKING: None.

unsigned int ata_dev_set_xfermode(struct ata_device * dev)

Issue SET FEATURES - XFER MODE command

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device to which command will be sent

Description

Issue SET FEATURES - XFER MODE command to device dev on port ap.

LOCKING: PCI/etc. bus probe sem.

Return

0 on success, AC_ERR_* mask otherwise.
unsigned int ata_dev_init_params(struct ata_device * dev, u16 heads, u16 sectors)

Issue INIT DEV PARAMS command

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device to which command will be sent
u16 heads
Number of heads (taskfile parameter)
u16 sectors
Number of sectors (taskfile parameter)

Description

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Return

0 on success, AC_ERR_* mask otherwise.
int atapi_check_dma(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Check whether ATAPI DMA can be supported

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Metadata associated with taskfile to check

Description

Allow low-level driver to filter ATA PACKET commands, returning a status indicating whether or not it is OK to use DMA for the supplied PACKET command.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

0 when ATAPI DMA can be used
nonzero otherwise
void ata_sg_clean(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Unmap DMA memory associated with command

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Command containing DMA memory to be released

Description

Unmap all mapped DMA memory associated with this command.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

int ata_sg_setup(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

DMA-map the scatter-gather table associated with a command.

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Command with scatter-gather table to be mapped.

Description

DMA-map the scatter-gather table associated with queued_cmd qc.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

Zero on success, negative on error.
void swap_buf_le16(u16 * buf, unsigned int buf_words)

swap halves of 16-bit words in place

Parameters

u16 * buf
Buffer to swap
unsigned int buf_words
Number of 16-bit words in buffer.

Description

Swap halves of 16-bit words if needed to convert from little-endian byte order to native cpu byte order, or vice-versa.

LOCKING: Inherited from caller.

struct ata_queued_cmd * ata_qc_new_init(struct ata_device * dev, int tag)

Request an available ATA command, and initialize it

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device from whom we request an available command structure
int tag
tag

Description

LOCKING: None.
void ata_qc_free(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

free unused ata_queued_cmd

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Command to complete

Description

Designed to free unused ata_queued_cmd object in case something prevents using it.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

void ata_qc_issue(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

issue taskfile to device

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
command to issue to device

Description

Prepare an ATA command to submission to device. This includes mapping the data into a DMA-able area, filling in the S/G table, and finally writing the taskfile to hardware, starting the command.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

test whether the given link is online

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to test

Description

Test whether link is online. Note that this function returns 0 if online status of link cannot be obtained, so ata_link_online(link) != !ata_link_offline(link).

LOCKING: None.

Return

True if the port online status is available and online.

test whether the given link is offline

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to test

Description

Test whether link is offline. Note that this function returns 0 if offline status of link cannot be obtained, so ata_link_online(link) != !ata_link_offline(link).

LOCKING: None.

Return

True if the port offline status is available and offline.
void ata_dev_init(struct ata_device * dev)

Initialize an ata_device structure

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device structure to initialize

Description

Initialize dev in preparation for probing.

LOCKING: Inherited from caller.

Initialize an ata_link structure

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port link is attached to
struct ata_link * link
Link structure to initialize
int pmp
Port multiplier port number

Description

Initialize link.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep)

Initialize link->sata_spd_limit

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
Link to configure sata_spd_limit for

Description

Initialize link->[hw_]sata_spd_limit to the currently configured value.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

Return

0 on success, -errno on failure.
struct ata_port * ata_port_alloc(struct ata_host * host)

allocate and initialize basic ATA port resources

Parameters

struct ata_host * host
ATA host this allocated port belongs to

Description

Allocate and initialize basic ATA port resources.

Return

Allocate ATA port on success, NULL on failure.

LOCKING: Inherited from calling layer (may sleep).

void ata_finalize_port_ops(struct ata_port_operations * ops)

finalize ata_port_operations

Parameters

struct ata_port_operations * ops
ata_port_operations to finalize

Description

An ata_port_operations can inherit from another ops and that ops can again inherit from another. This can go on as many times as necessary as long as there is no loop in the inheritance chain.

Ops tables are finalized when the host is started. NULL or unspecified entries are inherited from the closet ancestor which has the method and the entry is populated with it. After finalization, the ops table directly points to all the methods and ->inherits is no longer necessary and cleared.

Using ATA_OP_NULL, inheriting ops can force a method to NULL.

LOCKING: None.

void ata_port_detach(struct ata_port * ap)

Detach ATA port in preparation of device removal

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to be detached

Description

Detach all ATA devices and the associated SCSI devices of ap; then, remove the associated SCSI host. ap is guaranteed to be quiescent on return from this function.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

void __ata_ehi_push_desc(struct ata_eh_info * ehi, const char * fmt, ...)

push error description without adding separator

Parameters

struct ata_eh_info * ehi
target EHI
const char * fmt
printf format string
...
variable arguments

Description

Format string according to fmt and append it to ehi->desc.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

void ata_ehi_push_desc(struct ata_eh_info * ehi, const char * fmt, ...)

push error description with separator

Parameters

struct ata_eh_info * ehi
target EHI
const char * fmt
printf format string
...
variable arguments

Description

Format string according to fmt and append it to ehi->desc. If ehi->desc is not empty, ", " is added in-between.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

void ata_ehi_clear_desc(struct ata_eh_info * ehi)

clean error description

Parameters

struct ata_eh_info * ehi
target EHI

Description

Clear ehi->desc.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

void ata_port_desc(struct ata_port * ap, const char * fmt, ...)

append port description

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
target ATA port
const char * fmt
printf format string
...
variable arguments

Description

Format string according to fmt and append it to port description. If port description is not empty, " " is added in-between. This function is to be used while initializing ata_host. The description is printed on host registration.

LOCKING: None.

void ata_port_pbar_desc(struct ata_port * ap, int bar, ssize_t offset, const char * name)

append PCI BAR description

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
target ATA port
int bar
target PCI BAR
ssize_t offset
offset into PCI BAR
const char * name
name of the area

Description

If offset is negative, this function formats a string which contains the name, address, size and type of the BAR and appends it to the port description. If offset is zero or positive, only name and offsetted address is appended.

LOCKING: None.

unsigned long ata_internal_cmd_timeout(struct ata_device * dev, u8 cmd)

determine timeout for an internal command

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
target device
u8 cmd
internal command to be issued

Description

Determine timeout for internal command cmd for dev.

LOCKING: EH context.

Return

Determined timeout.
void ata_internal_cmd_timed_out(struct ata_device * dev, u8 cmd)

notification for internal command timeout

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
target device
u8 cmd
internal command which timed out

Description

Notify EH that internal command cmd for dev timed out. This function should be called only for commands whose timeouts are determined using ata_internal_cmd_timeout().

LOCKING: EH context.

void ata_eh_acquire(struct ata_port * ap)

acquire EH ownership

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to acquire EH ownership for

Description

Acquire EH ownership for ap. This is the basic exclusion mechanism for ports sharing a host. Only one port hanging off the same host can claim the ownership of EH.

LOCKING: EH context.

void ata_eh_release(struct ata_port * ap)

release EH ownership

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to release EH ownership for

Description

Release EH ownership for ap if the caller. The caller must have acquired EH ownership using ata_eh_acquire() previously.

LOCKING: EH context.

void ata_scsi_error(struct Scsi_Host * host)

SCSI layer error handler callback

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * host
SCSI host on which error occurred

Description

Handles SCSI-layer-thrown error events.

LOCKING: Inherited from SCSI layer (none, can sleep)

Return

Zero.
void ata_scsi_cmd_error_handler(struct Scsi_Host * host, struct ata_port * ap, struct list_head * eh_work_q)

error callback for a list of commands

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * host
scsi host containing the port
struct ata_port * ap
ATA port within the host
struct list_head * eh_work_q
list of commands to process

Description

process the given list of commands and return those finished to the ap->eh_done_q. This function is the first part of the libata error handler which processes a given list of failed commands.

void ata_scsi_port_error_handler(struct Scsi_Host * host, struct ata_port * ap)

recover the port after the commands

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * host
SCSI host containing the port
struct ata_port * ap
the ATA port

Description

Handle the recovery of the port ap after all the commands have been recovered.

void ata_port_wait_eh(struct ata_port * ap)

Wait for the currently pending EH to complete

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
Port to wait EH for

Description

Wait until the currently pending EH is complete.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

void ata_eh_set_pending(struct ata_port * ap, int fastdrain)

set ATA_PFLAG_EH_PENDING and activate fast drain

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
target ATA port
int fastdrain
activate fast drain

Description

Set ATA_PFLAG_EH_PENDING and activate fast drain if fastdrain is non-zero and EH wasn't pending before. Fast drain ensures that EH kicks in in timely manner.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

void ata_qc_schedule_eh(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

schedule qc for error handling

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
command to schedule error handling for

Description

Schedule error handling for qc. EH will kick in as soon as other commands are drained.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

void ata_std_sched_eh(struct ata_port * ap)

non-libsas ata_ports issue eh with this common routine

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to schedule EH for

Description

LOCKING: inherited from ata_port_schedule_eh spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)
void ata_std_end_eh(struct ata_port * ap)

non-libsas ata_ports complete eh with this common routine

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to end EH for

Description

In the libata object model there is a 1:1 mapping of ata_port to shost, so host fields can be directly manipulated under ap->lock, in the libsas case we need to hold a lock at the ha->level to coordinate these events.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)
void ata_port_schedule_eh(struct ata_port * ap)

schedule error handling without a qc

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to schedule EH for

Description

Schedule error handling for ap. EH will kick in as soon as all commands are drained.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

abort all qc's on the link

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to abort qc's for

Description

Abort all active qc's active on link and schedule EH.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

Number of aborted qc's.
int ata_port_abort(struct ata_port * ap)

abort all qc's on the port

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to abort qc's for

Description

Abort all active qc's of ap and schedule EH.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host_set lock)

Return

Number of aborted qc's.
void __ata_port_freeze(struct ata_port * ap)

freeze port

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to freeze

Description

This function is called when HSM violation or some other condition disrupts normal operation of the port. Frozen port is not allowed to perform any operation until the port is thawed, which usually follows a successful reset.

ap->ops->:c:func:freeze() callback can be used for freezing the port hardware-wise (e.g. mask interrupt and stop DMA engine). If a port cannot be frozen hardware-wise, the interrupt handler must ack and clear interrupts unconditionally while the port is frozen.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

int ata_port_freeze(struct ata_port * ap)

abort & freeze port

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to freeze

Description

Abort and freeze ap. The freeze operation must be called first, because some hardware requires special operations before the taskfile registers are accessible.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

Number of aborted commands.
int sata_async_notification(struct ata_port * ap)

SATA async notification handler

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port where async notification is received

Description

Handler to be called when async notification via SDB FIS is received. This function schedules EH if necessary.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

1 if EH is scheduled, 0 otherwise.
void ata_eh_freeze_port(struct ata_port * ap)

EH helper to freeze port

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to freeze

Description

Freeze ap.

LOCKING: None.

void ata_eh_thaw_port(struct ata_port * ap)

EH helper to thaw port

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to thaw

Description

Thaw frozen port ap.

LOCKING: None.

void ata_eh_qc_complete(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Complete an active ATA command from EH

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Command to complete

Description

Indicate to the mid and upper layers that an ATA command has completed. To be used from EH.
void ata_eh_qc_retry(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Tell midlayer to retry an ATA command after EH

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Command to retry

Description

Indicate to the mid and upper layers that an ATA command should be retried. To be used from EH.

SCSI midlayer limits the number of retries to scmd->allowed. scmd->allowed is incremented for commands which get retried due to unrelated failures (qc->err_mask is zero).

void ata_dev_disable(struct ata_device * dev)

disable ATA device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device to disable

Description

Disable dev.

Locking: EH context.

void ata_eh_detach_dev(struct ata_device * dev)

detach ATA device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device to detach

Description

Detach dev.

LOCKING: None.

void ata_eh_about_to_do(struct ata_link * link, struct ata_device * dev, unsigned int action)

about to perform eh_action

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
target ATA link
struct ata_device * dev
target ATA dev for per-dev action (can be NULL)
unsigned int action
action about to be performed

Description

Called just before performing EH actions to clear related bits in link->eh_info such that eh actions are not unnecessarily repeated.

LOCKING: None.

void ata_eh_done(struct ata_link * link, struct ata_device * dev, unsigned int action)

EH action complete

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link for which EH actions are complete
struct ata_device * dev
target ATA dev for per-dev action (can be NULL)
unsigned int action
action just completed

Description

Called right after performing EH actions to clear related bits in link->eh_context.

LOCKING: None.

const char * ata_err_string(unsigned int err_mask)

convert err_mask to descriptive string

Parameters

unsigned int err_mask
error mask to convert to string

Description

Convert err_mask to descriptive string. Errors are prioritized according to severity and only the most severe error is reported.

LOCKING: None.

Return

Descriptive string for err_mask
int ata_eh_read_log_10h(struct ata_device * dev, int * tag, struct ata_taskfile * tf)

Read log page 10h for NCQ error details

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device to read log page 10h from
int * tag
Resulting tag of the failed command
struct ata_taskfile * tf
Resulting taskfile registers of the failed command

Description

Read log page 10h to obtain NCQ error details and clear error condition.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

Return

0 on success, -errno otherwise.
unsigned int atapi_eh_tur(struct ata_device * dev, u8 * r_sense_key)

perform ATAPI TEST_UNIT_READY

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
target ATAPI device
u8 * r_sense_key
out parameter for sense_key

Description

Perform ATAPI TEST_UNIT_READY.

LOCKING: EH context (may sleep).

Return

0 on success, AC_ERR_* mask on failure.
void ata_eh_request_sense(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc, struct scsi_cmnd * cmd)

perform REQUEST_SENSE_DATA_EXT

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
qc to perform REQUEST_SENSE_SENSE_DATA_EXT to
struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
scsi command for which the sense code should be set

Description

Perform REQUEST_SENSE_DATA_EXT after the device reported CHECK SENSE. This function is an EH helper.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

unsigned int atapi_eh_request_sense(struct ata_device * dev, u8 * sense_buf, u8 dfl_sense_key)

perform ATAPI REQUEST_SENSE

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
device to perform REQUEST_SENSE to
u8 * sense_buf
result sense data buffer (SCSI_SENSE_BUFFERSIZE bytes long)
u8 dfl_sense_key
default sense key to use

Description

Perform ATAPI REQUEST_SENSE after the device reported CHECK SENSE. This function is EH helper.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

Return

0 on success, AC_ERR_* mask on failure
void ata_eh_analyze_serror(struct ata_link * link)

analyze SError for a failed port

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to analyze SError for

Description

Analyze SError if available and further determine cause of failure.

LOCKING: None.

void ata_eh_analyze_ncq_error(struct ata_link * link)

analyze NCQ error

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link to analyze NCQ error for

Description

Read log page 10h, determine the offending qc and acquire error status TF. For NCQ device errors, all LLDDs have to do is setting AC_ERR_DEV in ehi->err_mask. This function takes care of the rest.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

unsigned int ata_eh_analyze_tf(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc, const struct ata_taskfile * tf)

analyze taskfile of a failed qc

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
qc to analyze
const struct ata_taskfile * tf
Taskfile registers to analyze

Description

Analyze taskfile of qc and further determine cause of failure. This function also requests ATAPI sense data if available.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

Return

Determined recovery action
unsigned int ata_eh_speed_down_verdict(struct ata_device * dev)

Determine speed down verdict

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device of interest

Description

This function examines error ring of dev and determines whether NCQ needs to be turned off, transfer speed should be stepped down, or falling back to PIO is necessary.

ECAT_ATA_BUS : ATA_BUS error for any command

ECAT_TOUT_HSM : TIMEOUT for any command or HSM violation for
IO commands

ECAT_UNK_DEV : Unknown DEV error for IO commands

ECAT_DUBIOUS_* : Identical to above three but occurred while
data transfer hasn't been verified.

Verdicts are

NCQ_OFF : Turn off NCQ.

SPEED_DOWN : Speed down transfer speed but don't fall back
to PIO.

FALLBACK_TO_PIO : Fall back to PIO.

Even if multiple verdicts are returned, only one action is taken per error. An action triggered by non-DUBIOUS errors clears ering, while one triggered by DUBIOUS_* errors doesn't. This is to expedite speed down decisions right after device is initially configured.

The following are speed down rules. #1 and #2 deal with DUBIOUS errors.

  1. If more than one DUBIOUS_ATA_BUS or DUBIOUS_TOUT_HSM errors occurred during last 5 mins, SPEED_DOWN and FALLBACK_TO_PIO.
  2. If more than one DUBIOUS_TOUT_HSM or DUBIOUS_UNK_DEV errors occurred during last 5 mins, NCQ_OFF.
  3. If more than 8 ATA_BUS, TOUT_HSM or UNK_DEV errors occurred during last 5 mins, FALLBACK_TO_PIO
  4. If more than 3 TOUT_HSM or UNK_DEV errors occurred during last 10 mins, NCQ_OFF.
  5. If more than 3 ATA_BUS or TOUT_HSM errors, or more than 6 UNK_DEV errors occurred during last 10 mins, SPEED_DOWN.

LOCKING: Inherited from caller.

Return

OR of ATA_EH_SPDN_* flags.
unsigned int ata_eh_speed_down(struct ata_device * dev, unsigned int eflags, unsigned int err_mask)

record error and speed down if necessary

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Failed device
unsigned int eflags
mask of ATA_EFLAG_* flags
unsigned int err_mask
err_mask of the error

Description

Record error and examine error history to determine whether adjusting transmission speed is necessary. It also sets transmission limits appropriately if such adjustment is necessary.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

Return

Determined recovery action.
int ata_eh_worth_retry(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

analyze error and decide whether to retry

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
qc to possibly retry

Description

Look at the cause of the error and decide if a retry might be useful or not. We don't want to retry media errors because the drive itself has probably already taken 10-30 seconds doing its own internal retries before reporting the failure.
bool ata_eh_quiet(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

check if we need to be quiet about a command error

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
qc to check

Description

Look at the qc flags anbd its scsi command request flags to determine if we need to be quiet about the command failure.

analyze error and determine recovery action

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
host link to perform autopsy on

Description

Analyze why link failed and determine which recovery actions are needed. This function also sets more detailed AC_ERR_* values and fills sense data for ATAPI CHECK SENSE.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

void ata_eh_autopsy(struct ata_port * ap)

analyze error and determine recovery action

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
host port to perform autopsy on

Description

Analyze all links of ap and determine why they failed and which recovery actions are needed.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

const char * ata_get_cmd_descript(u8 command)

get description for ATA command

Parameters

u8 command
ATA command code to get description for

Description

Return a textual description of the given command, or NULL if the command is not known.

LOCKING: None

report error handling to user

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
ATA link EH is going on

Description

Report EH to user.

LOCKING: None.

void ata_eh_report(struct ata_port * ap)

report error handling to user

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to report EH about

Description

Report EH to user.

LOCKING: None.

int ata_set_mode(struct ata_link * link, struct ata_device ** r_failed_dev)

Program timings and issue SET FEATURES - XFER

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
link on which timings will be programmed
struct ata_device ** r_failed_dev
out parameter for failed device

Description

Set ATA device disk transfer mode (PIO3, UDMA6, etc.). If ata_set_mode() fails, pointer to the failing device is returned in r_failed_dev.

LOCKING: PCI/etc. bus probe sem.

Return

0 on success, negative errno otherwise
int atapi_eh_clear_ua(struct ata_device * dev)

Clear ATAPI UNIT ATTENTION after reset

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATAPI device to clear UA for

Description

Resets and other operations can make an ATAPI device raise UNIT ATTENTION which causes the next operation to fail. This function clears UA.

LOCKING: EH context (may sleep).

Return

0 on success, -errno on failure.
int ata_eh_maybe_retry_flush(struct ata_device * dev)

Retry FLUSH if necessary

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device which may need FLUSH retry

Description

If dev failed FLUSH, it needs to be reported upper layer immediately as it means that dev failed to remap and already lost at least a sector and further FLUSH retrials won't make any difference to the lost sector. However, if FLUSH failed for other reasons, for example transmission error, FLUSH needs to be retried.

This function determines whether FLUSH failure retry is necessary and performs it if so.

Return

0 if EH can continue, -errno if EH needs to be repeated.
int ata_eh_set_lpm(struct ata_link * link, enum ata_lpm_policy policy, struct ata_device ** r_failed_dev)

configure SATA interface power management

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
link to configure power management
enum ata_lpm_policy policy
the link power management policy
struct ata_device ** r_failed_dev
out parameter for failed device

Description

Enable SATA Interface power management. This will enable Device Interface Power Management (DIPM) for min_power and medium_power_with_dipm policies, and then call driver specific callbacks for enabling Host Initiated Power management.

LOCKING: EH context.

Return

0 on success, -errno on failure.
int ata_eh_recover(struct ata_port * ap, ata_prereset_fn_t prereset, ata_reset_fn_t softreset, ata_reset_fn_t hardreset, ata_postreset_fn_t postreset, struct ata_link ** r_failed_link)

recover host port after error

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
host port to recover
ata_prereset_fn_t prereset
prereset method (can be NULL)
ata_reset_fn_t softreset
softreset method (can be NULL)
ata_reset_fn_t hardreset
hardreset method (can be NULL)
ata_postreset_fn_t postreset
postreset method (can be NULL)
struct ata_link ** r_failed_link
out parameter for failed link

Description

This is the alpha and omega, eum and yang, heart and soul of libata exception handling. On entry, actions required to recover each link and hotplug requests are recorded in the link's eh_context. This function executes all the operations with appropriate retrials and fallbacks to resurrect failed devices, detach goners and greet newcomers.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

Return

0 on success, -errno on failure.
void ata_eh_finish(struct ata_port * ap)

finish up EH

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
host port to finish EH for

Description

Recovery is complete. Clean up EH states and retry or finish failed qcs.

LOCKING: None.

void ata_do_eh(struct ata_port * ap, ata_prereset_fn_t prereset, ata_reset_fn_t softreset, ata_reset_fn_t hardreset, ata_postreset_fn_t postreset)

do standard error handling

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
host port to handle error for
ata_prereset_fn_t prereset
prereset method (can be NULL)
ata_reset_fn_t softreset
softreset method (can be NULL)
ata_reset_fn_t hardreset
hardreset method (can be NULL)
ata_postreset_fn_t postreset
postreset method (can be NULL)

Description

Perform standard error handling sequence.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

void ata_std_error_handler(struct ata_port * ap)

standard error handler

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
host port to handle error for

Description

Standard error handler

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

void ata_eh_handle_port_suspend(struct ata_port * ap)

perform port suspend operation

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
port to suspend

Description

Suspend ap.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

void ata_eh_handle_port_resume(struct ata_port * ap)

perform port resume operation

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
port to resume

Description

Resume ap.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

libata SCSI translation/emulation

struct ata_port * ata_sas_port_alloc(struct ata_host * host, struct ata_port_info * port_info, struct Scsi_Host * shost)

Allocate port for a SAS attached SATA device

Parameters

struct ata_host * host
ATA host container for all SAS ports
struct ata_port_info * port_info
Information from low-level host driver
struct Scsi_Host * shost
SCSI host that the scsi device is attached to

Description

LOCKING: PCI/etc. bus probe sem.

Return

ata_port pointer on success / NULL on failure.
int ata_sas_port_start(struct ata_port * ap)

Set port up for dma.

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
Port to initialize

Description

Called just after data structures for each port are initialized.

May be used as the port_start() entry in ata_port_operations.

LOCKING: Inherited from caller.

void ata_sas_port_stop(struct ata_port * ap)

Undo ata_sas_port_start()

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
Port to shut down

Description

May be used as the port_stop() entry in ata_port_operations.

LOCKING: Inherited from caller.

void ata_sas_async_probe(struct ata_port * ap)

simply schedule probing and return

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
Port to probe

Description

For batch scheduling of probe for sas attached ata devices, assumes the port has already been through ata_sas_port_init()

int ata_sas_port_init(struct ata_port * ap)

Initialize a SATA device

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
SATA port to initialize

Description

LOCKING: PCI/etc. bus probe sem.

Return

Zero on success, non-zero on error.
void ata_sas_port_destroy(struct ata_port * ap)

Destroy a SATA port allocated by ata_sas_port_alloc

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
SATA port to destroy
int ata_sas_slave_configure(struct scsi_device * sdev, struct ata_port * ap)

Default slave_config routine for libata devices

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI device to configure
struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to which SCSI device is attached

Return

Zero.
int ata_sas_queuecmd(struct scsi_cmnd * cmd, struct ata_port * ap)

Issue SCSI cdb to libata-managed device

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
SCSI command to be sent
struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to which the command is being sent

Return

Return value from __ata_scsi_queuecmd() if cmd can be queued, 0 otherwise.
int ata_std_bios_param(struct scsi_device * sdev, struct block_device * bdev, sector_t capacity, int geom)

generic bios head/sector/cylinder calculator used by sd.

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI device for which BIOS geometry is to be determined
struct block_device * bdev
block device associated with sdev
sector_t capacity
capacity of SCSI device
int geom
location to which geometry will be output

Description

Generic bios head/sector/cylinder calculator used by sd. Most BIOSes nowadays expect a XXX/255/16 (CHS) mapping. Some situations may arise where the disk is not bootable if this is not used.

LOCKING: Defined by the SCSI layer. We don't really care.

Return

Zero.
void ata_scsi_unlock_native_capacity(struct scsi_device * sdev)

unlock native capacity

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI device to adjust device capacity for

Description

This function is called if a partition on sdev extends beyond the end of the device. It requests EH to unlock HPA.

LOCKING: Defined by the SCSI layer. Might sleep.

int ata_get_identity(struct ata_port * ap, struct scsi_device * sdev, void __user * arg)

Handler for HDIO_GET_IDENTITY ioctl

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
target port
struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI device to get identify data for
void __user * arg
User buffer area for identify data

Description

LOCKING: Defined by the SCSI layer. We don't really care.

Return

Zero on success, negative errno on error.
int ata_cmd_ioctl(struct scsi_device * scsidev, void __user * arg)

Handler for HDIO_DRIVE_CMD ioctl

Parameters

struct scsi_device * scsidev
Device to which we are issuing command
void __user * arg
User provided data for issuing command

Description

LOCKING: Defined by the SCSI layer. We don't really care.

Return

Zero on success, negative errno on error.
int ata_task_ioctl(struct scsi_device * scsidev, void __user * arg)

Handler for HDIO_DRIVE_TASK ioctl

Parameters

struct scsi_device * scsidev
Device to which we are issuing command
void __user * arg
User provided data for issuing command

Description

LOCKING: Defined by the SCSI layer. We don't really care.

Return

Zero on success, negative errno on error.
struct ata_queued_cmd * ata_scsi_qc_new(struct ata_device * dev, struct scsi_cmnd * cmd)

acquire new ata_queued_cmd reference

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device to which the new command is attached
struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
SCSI command that originated this ATA command

Description

Obtain a reference to an unused ata_queued_cmd structure, which is the basic libata structure representing a single ATA command sent to the hardware.

If a command was available, fill in the SCSI-specific portions of the structure with information on the current command.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

Command allocated, or NULL if none available.
void ata_dump_status(unsigned id, struct ata_taskfile * tf)

user friendly display of error info

Parameters

unsigned id
id of the port in question
struct ata_taskfile * tf
ptr to filled out taskfile

Description

Decode and dump the ATA error/status registers for the user so that they have some idea what really happened at the non make-believe layer.

LOCKING: inherited from caller

void ata_to_sense_error(unsigned id, u8 drv_stat, u8 drv_err, u8 * sk, u8 * asc, u8 * ascq, int verbose)

convert ATA error to SCSI error

Parameters

unsigned id
ATA device number
u8 drv_stat
value contained in ATA status register
u8 drv_err
value contained in ATA error register
u8 * sk
the sense key we'll fill out
u8 * asc
the additional sense code we'll fill out
u8 * ascq
the additional sense code qualifier we'll fill out
int verbose
be verbose

Description

Converts an ATA error into a SCSI error. Fill out pointers to SK, ASC, and ASCQ bytes for later use in fixed or descriptor format sense blocks.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

void ata_gen_ata_sense(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

generate a SCSI fixed sense block

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Command that we are erroring out

Description

Generate sense block for a failed ATA command qc. Descriptor format is used to accommodate LBA48 block address.

LOCKING: None.

int atapi_drain_needed(struct request * rq)

Check whether data transfer may overflow

Parameters

struct request * rq
request to be checked

Description

ATAPI commands which transfer variable length data to host might overflow due to application error or hardware bug. This function checks whether overflow should be drained and ignored for request.

LOCKING: None.

Return

1 if ; otherwise, 0.
int ata_scsi_slave_config(struct scsi_device * sdev)

Set SCSI device attributes

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI device to examine

Description

This is called before we actually start reading and writing to the device, to configure certain SCSI mid-layer behaviors.

LOCKING: Defined by SCSI layer. We don't really care.

void ata_scsi_slave_destroy(struct scsi_device * sdev)

SCSI device is about to be destroyed

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI device to be destroyed

Description

sdev is about to be destroyed for hot/warm unplugging. If this unplugging was initiated by libata as indicated by NULL dev->sdev, this function doesn't have to do anything. Otherwise, SCSI layer initiated warm-unplug is in progress. Clear dev->sdev, schedule the device for ATA detach and invoke EH.

LOCKING: Defined by SCSI layer. We don't really care.

int __ata_change_queue_depth(struct ata_port * ap, struct scsi_device * sdev, int queue_depth)

helper for ata_scsi_change_queue_depth

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to which the device change the queue depth
struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI device to configure queue depth for
int queue_depth
new queue depth

Description

libsas and libata have different approaches for associating a sdev to its ata_port.
int ata_scsi_change_queue_depth(struct scsi_device * sdev, int queue_depth)

SCSI callback for queue depth config

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI device to configure queue depth for
int queue_depth
new queue depth

Description

This is libata standard hostt->change_queue_depth callback. SCSI will call into this callback when user tries to set queue depth via sysfs.

LOCKING: SCSI layer (we don't care)

Return

Newly configured queue depth.
unsigned int ata_scsi_start_stop_xlat(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Translate SCSI START STOP UNIT command

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Storage for translated ATA taskfile

Description

Sets up an ATA taskfile to issue STANDBY (to stop) or READ VERIFY (to start). Perhaps these commands should be preceded by CHECK POWER MODE to see what power mode the device is already in. [See SAT revision 5 at www.t10.org]

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

Zero on success, non-zero on error.
unsigned int ata_scsi_flush_xlat(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Translate SCSI SYNCHRONIZE CACHE command

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Storage for translated ATA taskfile

Description

Sets up an ATA taskfile to issue FLUSH CACHE or FLUSH CACHE EXT.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

Zero on success, non-zero on error.
void scsi_6_lba_len(const u8 * cdb, u64 * plba, u32 * plen)

Get LBA and transfer length

Parameters

const u8 * cdb
SCSI command to translate
u64 * plba
the LBA
u32 * plen
the transfer length

Description

Calculate LBA and transfer length for 6-byte commands.
void scsi_10_lba_len(const u8 * cdb, u64 * plba, u32 * plen)

Get LBA and transfer length

Parameters

const u8 * cdb
SCSI command to translate
u64 * plba
the LBA
u32 * plen
the transfer length

Description

Calculate LBA and transfer length for 10-byte commands.
void scsi_16_lba_len(const u8 * cdb, u64 * plba, u32 * plen)

Get LBA and transfer length

Parameters

const u8 * cdb
SCSI command to translate
u64 * plba
the LBA
u32 * plen
the transfer length

Description

Calculate LBA and transfer length for 16-byte commands.
unsigned int ata_scsi_verify_xlat(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Translate SCSI VERIFY command into an ATA one

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Storage for translated ATA taskfile

Description

Converts SCSI VERIFY command to an ATA READ VERIFY command.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

Zero on success, non-zero on error.
unsigned int ata_scsi_rw_xlat(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Translate SCSI r/w command into an ATA one

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Storage for translated ATA taskfile

Description

Converts any of six SCSI read/write commands into the ATA counterpart, including starting sector (LBA), sector count, and taking into account the device's LBA48 support.

Commands READ_6, READ_10, READ_16, WRITE_6, WRITE_10, and WRITE_16 are currently supported.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

Zero on success, non-zero on error.
int ata_scsi_translate(struct ata_device * dev, struct scsi_cmnd * cmd, ata_xlat_func_t xlat_func)

Translate then issue SCSI command to ATA device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device to which the command is addressed
struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
SCSI command to execute
ata_xlat_func_t xlat_func
Actor which translates cmd to an ATA taskfile

Description

Our ->:c:func:queuecommand() function has decided that the SCSI command issued can be directly translated into an ATA command, rather than handled internally.

This function sets up an ata_queued_cmd structure for the SCSI command, and sends that ata_queued_cmd to the hardware.

The xlat_func argument (actor) returns 0 if ready to execute ATA command, else 1 to finish translation. If 1 is returned then cmd->result (and possibly cmd->sense_buffer) are assumed to be set reflecting an error condition or clean (early) termination.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

0 on success, SCSI_ML_QUEUE_DEVICE_BUSY if the command needs to be deferred.
void * ata_scsi_rbuf_get(struct scsi_cmnd * cmd, bool copy_in, unsigned long * flags)

Map response buffer.

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
SCSI command containing buffer to be mapped.
bool copy_in
copy in from user buffer
unsigned long * flags
unsigned long variable to store irq enable status

Description

Prepare buffer for simulated SCSI commands.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(ata_scsi_rbuf_lock) on success

Return

Pointer to response buffer.
void ata_scsi_rbuf_put(struct scsi_cmnd * cmd, bool copy_out, unsigned long * flags)

Unmap response buffer.

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
SCSI command containing buffer to be unmapped.
bool copy_out
copy out result
unsigned long * flags
flags passed to ata_scsi_rbuf_get()

Description

Returns rbuf buffer. The result is copied to cmd's buffer if copy_back is true.

LOCKING: Unlocks ata_scsi_rbuf_lock.

void ata_scsi_rbuf_fill(struct ata_scsi_args * args, unsigned int (*actor) (struct ata_scsi_args *args, u8 *rbuf)

wrapper for SCSI command simulators

Parameters

struct ata_scsi_args * args
device IDENTIFY data / SCSI command of interest.
unsigned int (*)(struct ata_scsi_args *args, u8 *rbuf) actor
Callback hook for desired SCSI command simulator

Description

Takes care of the hard work of simulating a SCSI command... Mapping the response buffer, calling the command's handler, and handling the handler's return value. This return value indicates whether the handler wishes the SCSI command to be completed successfully (0), or not (in which case cmd->result and sense buffer are assumed to be set).

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

unsigned int ata_scsiop_inq_std(struct ata_scsi_args * args, u8 * rbuf)

Simulate INQUIRY command

Parameters

struct ata_scsi_args * args
device IDENTIFY data / SCSI command of interest.
u8 * rbuf
Response buffer, to which simulated SCSI cmd output is sent.

Description

Returns standard device identification data associated with non-VPD INQUIRY command output.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

unsigned int ata_scsiop_inq_00(struct ata_scsi_args * args, u8 * rbuf)

Simulate INQUIRY VPD page 0, list of pages

Parameters

struct ata_scsi_args * args
device IDENTIFY data / SCSI command of interest.
u8 * rbuf
Response buffer, to which simulated SCSI cmd output is sent.

Description

Returns list of inquiry VPD pages available.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

unsigned int ata_scsiop_inq_80(struct ata_scsi_args * args, u8 * rbuf)

Simulate INQUIRY VPD page 80, device serial number

Parameters

struct ata_scsi_args * args
device IDENTIFY data / SCSI command of interest.
u8 * rbuf
Response buffer, to which simulated SCSI cmd output is sent.

Description

Returns ATA device serial number.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

unsigned int ata_scsiop_inq_83(struct ata_scsi_args * args, u8 * rbuf)

Simulate INQUIRY VPD page 83, device identity

Parameters

struct ata_scsi_args * args
device IDENTIFY data / SCSI command of interest.
u8 * rbuf
Response buffer, to which simulated SCSI cmd output is sent.

Description

Yields two logical unit device identification designators:
  • vendor specific ASCII containing the ATA serial number
  • SAT defined "t10 vendor id based" containing ASCII vendor name ("ATA "), model and serial numbers.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

unsigned int ata_scsiop_inq_89(struct ata_scsi_args * args, u8 * rbuf)

Simulate INQUIRY VPD page 89, ATA info

Parameters

struct ata_scsi_args * args
device IDENTIFY data / SCSI command of interest.
u8 * rbuf
Response buffer, to which simulated SCSI cmd output is sent.

Description

Yields SAT-specified ATA VPD page.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

void modecpy(u8 * dest, const u8 * src, int n, bool changeable)

Prepare response for MODE SENSE

Parameters

u8 * dest
output buffer
const u8 * src
data being copied
int n
length of mode page
bool changeable
whether changeable parameters are requested

Description

Generate a generic MODE SENSE page for either current or changeable parameters.

LOCKING: None.

unsigned int ata_msense_caching(u16 * id, u8 * buf, bool changeable)

Simulate MODE SENSE caching info page

Parameters

u16 * id
device IDENTIFY data
u8 * buf
output buffer
bool changeable
whether changeable parameters are requested

Description

Generate a caching info page, which conditionally indicates write caching to the SCSI layer, depending on device capabilities.

LOCKING: None.

unsigned int ata_msense_control(struct ata_device * dev, u8 * buf, bool changeable)

Simulate MODE SENSE control mode page

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device of interest
u8 * buf
output buffer
bool changeable
whether changeable parameters are requested

Description

Generate a generic MODE SENSE control mode page.

LOCKING: None.

unsigned int ata_msense_rw_recovery(u8 * buf, bool changeable)

Simulate MODE SENSE r/w error recovery page

Parameters

u8 * buf
output buffer
bool changeable
whether changeable parameters are requested

Description

Generate a generic MODE SENSE r/w error recovery page.

LOCKING: None.

unsigned int ata_scsiop_mode_sense(struct ata_scsi_args * args, u8 * rbuf)

Simulate MODE SENSE 6, 10 commands

Parameters

struct ata_scsi_args * args
device IDENTIFY data / SCSI command of interest.
u8 * rbuf
Response buffer, to which simulated SCSI cmd output is sent.

Description

Simulate MODE SENSE commands. Assume this is invoked for direct access devices (e.g. disks) only. There should be no block descriptor for other device types.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

unsigned int ata_scsiop_read_cap(struct ata_scsi_args * args, u8 * rbuf)

Simulate READ CAPACITY[ 16] commands

Parameters

struct ata_scsi_args * args
device IDENTIFY data / SCSI command of interest.
u8 * rbuf
Response buffer, to which simulated SCSI cmd output is sent.

Description

Simulate READ CAPACITY commands.

LOCKING: None.

unsigned int ata_scsiop_report_luns(struct ata_scsi_args * args, u8 * rbuf)

Simulate REPORT LUNS command

Parameters

struct ata_scsi_args * args
device IDENTIFY data / SCSI command of interest.
u8 * rbuf
Response buffer, to which simulated SCSI cmd output is sent.

Description

Simulate REPORT LUNS command.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

unsigned int atapi_xlat(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Initialize PACKET taskfile

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
command structure to be initialized

Description

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

Zero on success, non-zero on failure.
struct ata_device * ata_scsi_find_dev(struct ata_port * ap, const struct scsi_device * scsidev)

lookup ata_device from scsi_cmnd

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to which the device is attached
const struct scsi_device * scsidev
SCSI device from which we derive the ATA device

Description

Given various information provided in struct scsi_cmnd, map that onto an ATA bus, and using that mapping determine which ata_device is associated with the SCSI command to be sent.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

Associated ATA device, or NULL if not found.
unsigned int ata_scsi_pass_thru(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

convert ATA pass-thru CDB to taskfile

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
command structure to be initialized

Description

Handles either 12, 16, or 32-byte versions of the CDB.

Return

Zero on success, non-zero on failure.
size_t ata_format_dsm_trim_descr(struct scsi_cmnd * cmd, u32 trmax, u64 sector, u32 count)

SATL Write Same to DSM Trim

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
SCSI command being translated
u32 trmax
Maximum number of entries that will fit in sector_size bytes.
u64 sector
Starting sector
u32 count
Total Range of request in logical sectors

Description

Rewrite the WRITE SAME descriptor to be a DSM TRIM little-endian formatted descriptor.

Upto 64 entries of the format:
63:48 Range Length 47:0 LBA

Range Length of 0 is ignored. LBA's should be sorted order and not overlap.

NOTE

this is the same format as ADD LBA(S) TO NV CACHE PINNED SET

Return

Number of bytes copied into sglist.

unsigned int ata_scsi_write_same_xlat(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

SATL Write Same to ATA SCT Write Same

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Command to be translated

Description

Translate a SCSI WRITE SAME command to be either a DSM TRIM command or an SCT Write Same command. Based on WRITE SAME has the UNMAP flag:

  • When set translate to DSM TRIM
  • When clear translate to SCT Write Same
unsigned int ata_scsiop_maint_in(struct ata_scsi_args * args, u8 * rbuf)

Simulate a subset of MAINTENANCE_IN

Parameters

struct ata_scsi_args * args
device MAINTENANCE_IN data / SCSI command of interest.
u8 * rbuf
Response buffer, to which simulated SCSI cmd output is sent.

Description

Yields a subset to satisfy scsi_report_opcode()

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

void ata_scsi_report_zones_complete(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

convert ATA output

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
command structure returning the data

Description

Convert T-13 little-endian field representation into T-10 big-endian field representation. What a mess.
int ata_mselect_caching(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc, const u8 * buf, int len, u16 * fp)

Simulate MODE SELECT for caching info page

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Storage for translated ATA taskfile
const u8 * buf
input buffer
int len
number of valid bytes in the input buffer
u16 * fp
out parameter for the failed field on error

Description

Prepare a taskfile to modify caching information for the device.

LOCKING: None.

int ata_mselect_control(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc, const u8 * buf, int len, u16 * fp)

Simulate MODE SELECT for control page

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Storage for translated ATA taskfile
const u8 * buf
input buffer
int len
number of valid bytes in the input buffer
u16 * fp
out parameter for the failed field on error

Description

Prepare a taskfile to modify caching information for the device.

LOCKING: None.

unsigned int ata_scsi_mode_select_xlat(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

Simulate MODE SELECT 6, 10 commands

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Storage for translated ATA taskfile

Description

Converts a MODE SELECT command to an ATA SET FEATURES taskfile. Assume this is invoked for direct access devices (e.g. disks) only. There should be no block descriptor for other device types.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

unsigned int ata_scsi_var_len_cdb_xlat(struct ata_queued_cmd * qc)

SATL variable length CDB to Handler

Parameters

struct ata_queued_cmd * qc
Command to be translated

Description

Translate a SCSI variable length CDB to specified commands. It checks a service action value in CDB to call corresponding handler.

Return

Zero on success, non-zero on failure
ata_xlat_func_t ata_get_xlat_func(struct ata_device * dev, u8 cmd)

check if SCSI to ATA translation is possible

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device
u8 cmd
SCSI command opcode to consider

Description

Look up the SCSI command given, and determine whether the SCSI command is to be translated or simulated.

Return

Pointer to translation function if possible, NULL if not.
void ata_scsi_dump_cdb(struct ata_port * ap, struct scsi_cmnd * cmd)

dump SCSI command contents to dmesg

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
ATA port to which the command was being sent
struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
SCSI command to dump

Description

Prints the contents of a SCSI command via printk().
int ata_scsi_queuecmd(struct Scsi_Host * shost, struct scsi_cmnd * cmd)

Issue SCSI cdb to libata-managed device

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
SCSI host of command to be sent
struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
SCSI command to be sent

Description

In some cases, this function translates SCSI commands into ATA taskfiles, and queues the taskfiles to be sent to hardware. In other cases, this function simulates a SCSI device by evaluating and responding to certain SCSI commands. This creates the overall effect of ATA and ATAPI devices appearing as SCSI devices.

LOCKING: ATA host lock

Return

Return value from __ata_scsi_queuecmd() if cmd can be queued, 0 otherwise.
void ata_scsi_simulate(struct ata_device * dev, struct scsi_cmnd * cmd)

simulate SCSI command on ATA device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
the target device
struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
SCSI command being sent to device.

Description

Interprets and directly executes a select list of SCSI commands that can be handled internally.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

int ata_scsi_offline_dev(struct ata_device * dev)

offline attached SCSI device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device to offline attached SCSI device for

Description

This function is called from ata_eh_hotplug() and responsible for taking the SCSI device attached to dev offline. This function is called with host lock which protects dev->sdev against clearing.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

Return

1 if attached SCSI device exists, 0 otherwise.
void ata_scsi_remove_dev(struct ata_device * dev)

remove attached SCSI device

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
ATA device to remove attached SCSI device for

Description

This function is called from ata_eh_scsi_hotplug() and responsible for removing the SCSI device attached to dev.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

void ata_scsi_media_change_notify(struct ata_device * dev)

send media change event

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Pointer to the disk device with media change event

Description

Tell the block layer to send a media change notification event.

LOCKING: spin_lock_irqsave(host lock)

void ata_scsi_hotplug(struct work_struct * work)

SCSI part of hotplug

Parameters

struct work_struct * work
Pointer to ATA port to perform SCSI hotplug on

Description

Perform SCSI part of hotplug. It's executed from a separate workqueue after EH completes. This is necessary because SCSI hot plugging requires working EH and hot unplugging is synchronized with hot plugging with a mutex.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

int ata_scsi_user_scan(struct Scsi_Host * shost, unsigned int channel, unsigned int id, u64 lun)

indication for user-initiated bus scan

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
SCSI host to scan
unsigned int channel
Channel to scan
unsigned int id
ID to scan
u64 lun
LUN to scan

Description

This function is called when user explicitly requests bus scan. Set probe pending flag and invoke EH.

LOCKING: SCSI layer (we don't care)

Return

Zero.
void ata_scsi_dev_rescan(struct work_struct * work)

initiate scsi_rescan_device()

Parameters

struct work_struct * work
Pointer to ATA port to perform scsi_rescan_device()

Description

After ATA pass thru (SAT) commands are executed successfully, libata need to propagate the changes to SCSI layer.

LOCKING: Kernel thread context (may sleep).

ATA errors and exceptions

This chapter tries to identify what error/exception conditions exist for ATA/ATAPI devices and describe how they should be handled in implementation-neutral way.

The term 'error' is used to describe conditions where either an explicit error condition is reported from device or a command has timed out.

The term 'exception' is either used to describe exceptional conditions which are not errors (say, power or hotplug events), or to describe both errors and non-error exceptional conditions. Where explicit distinction between error and exception is necessary, the term 'non-error exception' is used.

Exception categories

Exceptions are described primarily with respect to legacy taskfile + bus master IDE interface. If a controller provides other better mechanism for error reporting, mapping those into categories described below shouldn't be difficult.

In the following sections, two recovery actions - reset and reconfiguring transport - are mentioned. These are described further in EH recovery actions.

HSM violation

This error is indicated when STATUS value doesn't match HSM requirement during issuing or execution any ATA/ATAPI command.

  • ATA_STATUS doesn't contain !BSY && DRDY && !DRQ while trying to issue a command.
  • !BSY && !DRQ during PIO data transfer.
  • DRQ on command completion.
  • !BSY && ERR after CDB transfer starts but before the last byte of CDB is transferred. ATA/ATAPI standard states that "The device shall not terminate the PACKET command with an error before the last byte of the command packet has been written" in the error outputs description of PACKET command and the state diagram doesn't include such transitions.

In these cases, HSM is violated and not much information regarding the error can be acquired from STATUS or ERROR register. IOW, this error can be anything - driver bug, faulty device, controller and/or cable.

As HSM is violated, reset is necessary to restore known state. Reconfiguring transport for lower speed might be helpful too as transmission errors sometimes cause this kind of errors.

ATA/ATAPI device error (non-NCQ / non-CHECK CONDITION)

These are errors detected and reported by ATA/ATAPI devices indicating device problems. For this type of errors, STATUS and ERROR register values are valid and describe error condition. Note that some of ATA bus errors are detected by ATA/ATAPI devices and reported using the same mechanism as device errors. Those cases are described later in this section.

For ATA commands, this type of errors are indicated by !BSY && ERR during command execution and on completion.

For ATAPI commands,

  • !BSY && ERR && ABRT right after issuing PACKET indicates that PACKET command is not supported and falls in this category.
  • !BSY && ERR(==CHK) && !ABRT after the last byte of CDB is transferred indicates CHECK CONDITION and doesn't fall in this category.
  • !BSY && ERR(==CHK) && ABRT after the last byte of CDB is transferred *probably* indicates CHECK CONDITION and doesn't fall in this category.

Of errors detected as above, the following are not ATA/ATAPI device errors but ATA bus errors and should be handled according to ATA bus error.

CRC error during data transfer
This is indicated by ICRC bit in the ERROR register and means that corruption occurred during data transfer. Up to ATA/ATAPI-7, the standard specifies that this bit is only applicable to UDMA transfers but ATA/ATAPI-8 draft revision 1f says that the bit may be applicable to multiword DMA and PIO.
ABRT error during data transfer or on completion

Up to ATA/ATAPI-7, the standard specifies that ABRT could be set on ICRC errors and on cases where a device is not able to complete a command. Combined with the fact that MWDMA and PIO transfer errors aren't allowed to use ICRC bit up to ATA/ATAPI-7, it seems to imply that ABRT bit alone could indicate transfer errors.

However, ATA/ATAPI-8 draft revision 1f removes the part that ICRC errors can turn on ABRT. So, this is kind of gray area. Some heuristics are needed here.

ATA/ATAPI device errors can be further categorized as follows.

Media errors

This is indicated by UNC bit in the ERROR register. ATA devices reports UNC error only after certain number of retries cannot recover the data, so there's nothing much else to do other than notifying upper layer.

READ and WRITE commands report CHS or LBA of the first failed sector but ATA/ATAPI standard specifies that the amount of transferred data on error completion is indeterminate, so we cannot assume that sectors preceding the failed sector have been transferred and thus cannot complete those sectors successfully as SCSI does.

Media changed / media change requested error
<<TODO: fill here>>
Address error
This is indicated by IDNF bit in the ERROR register. Report to upper layer.
Other errors
This can be invalid command or parameter indicated by ABRT ERROR bit or some other error condition. Note that ABRT bit can indicate a lot of things including ICRC and Address errors. Heuristics needed.

Depending on commands, not all STATUS/ERROR bits are applicable. These non-applicable bits are marked with "na" in the output descriptions but up to ATA/ATAPI-7 no definition of "na" can be found. However, ATA/ATAPI-8 draft revision 1f describes "N/A" as follows.

3.2.3.3a N/A
A keyword the indicates a field has no defined value in this standard and should not be checked by the host or device. N/A fields should be cleared to zero.

So, it seems reasonable to assume that "na" bits are cleared to zero by devices and thus need no explicit masking.

ATAPI device CHECK CONDITION

ATAPI device CHECK CONDITION error is indicated by set CHK bit (ERR bit) in the STATUS register after the last byte of CDB is transferred for a PACKET command. For this kind of errors, sense data should be acquired to gather information regarding the errors. REQUEST SENSE packet command should be used to acquire sense data.

Once sense data is acquired, this type of errors can be handled similarly to other SCSI errors. Note that sense data may indicate ATA bus error (e.g. Sense Key 04h HARDWARE ERROR && ASC/ASCQ 47h/00h SCSI PARITY ERROR). In such cases, the error should be considered as an ATA bus error and handled according to ATA bus error.

ATA device error (NCQ)

NCQ command error is indicated by cleared BSY and set ERR bit during NCQ command phase (one or more NCQ commands outstanding). Although STATUS and ERROR registers will contain valid values describing the error, READ LOG EXT is required to clear the error condition, determine which command has failed and acquire more information.

READ LOG EXT Log Page 10h reports which tag has failed and taskfile register values describing the error. With this information the failed command can be handled as a normal ATA command error as in ATA/ATAPI device error (non-NCQ / non-CHECK CONDITION) and all other in-flight commands must be retried. Note that this retry should not be counted - it's likely that commands retried this way would have completed normally if it were not for the failed command.

Note that ATA bus errors can be reported as ATA device NCQ errors. This should be handled as described in ATA bus error.

If READ LOG EXT Log Page 10h fails or reports NQ, we're thoroughly screwed. This condition should be treated according to HSM violation.

ATA bus error

ATA bus error means that data corruption occurred during transmission over ATA bus (SATA or PATA). This type of errors can be indicated by

  • ICRC or ABRT error as described in ATA/ATAPI device error (non-NCQ / non-CHECK CONDITION).
  • Controller-specific error completion with error information indicating transmission error.
  • On some controllers, command timeout. In this case, there may be a mechanism to determine that the timeout is due to transmission error.
  • Unknown/random errors, timeouts and all sorts of weirdities.

As described above, transmission errors can cause wide variety of symptoms ranging from device ICRC error to random device lockup, and, for many cases, there is no way to tell if an error condition is due to transmission error or not; therefore, it's necessary to employ some kind of heuristic when dealing with errors and timeouts. For example, encountering repetitive ABRT errors for known supported command is likely to indicate ATA bus error.

Once it's determined that ATA bus errors have possibly occurred, lowering ATA bus transmission speed is one of actions which may alleviate the problem. See Reconfigure transport for more information.

PCI bus error

Data corruption or other failures during transmission over PCI (or other system bus). For standard BMDMA, this is indicated by Error bit in the BMDMA Status register. This type of errors must be logged as it indicates something is very wrong with the system. Resetting host controller is recommended.

Late completion

This occurs when timeout occurs and the timeout handler finds out that the timed out command has completed successfully or with error. This is usually caused by lost interrupts. This type of errors must be logged. Resetting host controller is recommended.

Unknown error (timeout)

This is when timeout occurs and the command is still processing or the host and device are in unknown state. When this occurs, HSM could be in any valid or invalid state. To bring the device to known state and make it forget about the timed out command, resetting is necessary. The timed out command may be retried.

Timeouts can also be caused by transmission errors. Refer to ATA bus error for more details.

Hotplug and power management exceptions

<<TODO: fill here>>

EH recovery actions

This section discusses several important recovery actions.

Clearing error condition

Many controllers require its error registers to be cleared by error handler. Different controllers may have different requirements.

For SATA, it's strongly recommended to clear at least SError register during error handling.

Reset

During EH, resetting is necessary in the following cases.

  • HSM is in unknown or invalid state
  • HBA is in unknown or invalid state
  • EH needs to make HBA/device forget about in-flight commands
  • HBA/device behaves weirdly

Resetting during EH might be a good idea regardless of error condition to improve EH robustness. Whether to reset both or either one of HBA and device depends on situation but the following scheme is recommended.

  • When it's known that HBA is in ready state but ATA/ATAPI device is in unknown state, reset only device.
  • If HBA is in unknown state, reset both HBA and device.

HBA resetting is implementation specific. For a controller complying to taskfile/BMDMA PCI IDE, stopping active DMA transaction may be sufficient iff BMDMA state is the only HBA context. But even mostly taskfile/BMDMA PCI IDE complying controllers may have implementation specific requirements and mechanism to reset themselves. This must be addressed by specific drivers.

OTOH, ATA/ATAPI standard describes in detail ways to reset ATA/ATAPI devices.

PATA hardware reset
This is hardware initiated device reset signalled with asserted PATA RESET- signal. There is no standard way to initiate hardware reset from software although some hardware provides registers that allow driver to directly tweak the RESET- signal.
Software reset
This is achieved by turning CONTROL SRST bit on for at least 5us. Both PATA and SATA support it but, in case of SATA, this may require controller-specific support as the second Register FIS to clear SRST should be transmitted while BSY bit is still set. Note that on PATA, this resets both master and slave devices on a channel.
EXECUTE DEVICE DIAGNOSTIC command

Although ATA/ATAPI standard doesn't describe exactly, EDD implies some level of resetting, possibly similar level with software reset. Host-side EDD protocol can be handled with normal command processing and most SATA controllers should be able to handle EDD's just like other commands. As in software reset, EDD affects both devices on a PATA bus.

Although EDD does reset devices, this doesn't suit error handling as EDD cannot be issued while BSY is set and it's unclear how it will act when device is in unknown/weird state.

ATAPI DEVICE RESET command
This is very similar to software reset except that reset can be restricted to the selected device without affecting the other device sharing the cable.
SATA phy reset
This is the preferred way of resetting a SATA device. In effect, it's identical to PATA hardware reset. Note that this can be done with the standard SCR Control register. As such, it's usually easier to implement than software reset.

One more thing to consider when resetting devices is that resetting clears certain configuration parameters and they need to be set to their previous or newly adjusted values after reset.

Parameters affected are.

  • CHS set up with INITIALIZE DEVICE PARAMETERS (seldom used)
  • Parameters set with SET FEATURES including transfer mode setting
  • Block count set with SET MULTIPLE MODE
  • Other parameters (SET MAX, MEDIA LOCK...)

ATA/ATAPI standard specifies that some parameters must be maintained across hardware or software reset, but doesn't strictly specify all of them. Always reconfiguring needed parameters after reset is required for robustness. Note that this also applies when resuming from deep sleep (power-off).

Also, ATA/ATAPI standard requires that IDENTIFY DEVICE / IDENTIFY PACKET DEVICE is issued after any configuration parameter is updated or a hardware reset and the result used for further operation. OS driver is required to implement revalidation mechanism to support this.

Reconfigure transport

For both PATA and SATA, a lot of corners are cut for cheap connectors, cables or controllers and it's quite common to see high transmission error rate. This can be mitigated by lowering transmission speed.

The following is a possible scheme Jeff Garzik suggested.

If more than $N (3?) transmission errors happen in 15 minutes,

  • if SATA, decrease SATA PHY speed. if speed cannot be decreased,
  • decrease UDMA xfer speed. if at UDMA0, switch to PIO4,
  • decrease PIO xfer speed. if at PIO3, complain, but continue

ata_piix Internals

int ich_pata_cable_detect(struct ata_port * ap)

Probe host controller cable detect info

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
Port for which cable detect info is desired

Description

Read 80c cable indicator from ATA PCI device's PCI config register. This register is normally set by firmware (BIOS).

LOCKING: None (inherited from caller).

int piix_pata_prereset(struct ata_link * link, unsigned long deadline)

prereset for PATA host controller

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
Target link
unsigned long deadline
deadline jiffies for the operation

Description

LOCKING: None (inherited from caller).
void piix_set_piomode(struct ata_port * ap, struct ata_device * adev)

Initialize host controller PATA PIO timings

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
Port whose timings we are configuring
struct ata_device * adev
Drive in question

Description

Set PIO mode for device, in host controller PCI config space.

LOCKING: None (inherited from caller).

void do_pata_set_dmamode(struct ata_port * ap, struct ata_device * adev, int isich)

Initialize host controller PATA PIO timings

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
Port whose timings we are configuring
struct ata_device * adev
Drive in question
int isich
set if the chip is an ICH device

Description

Set UDMA mode for device, in host controller PCI config space.

LOCKING: None (inherited from caller).

void piix_set_dmamode(struct ata_port * ap, struct ata_device * adev)

Initialize host controller PATA DMA timings

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
Port whose timings we are configuring
struct ata_device * adev
um

Description

Set MW/UDMA mode for device, in host controller PCI config space.

LOCKING: None (inherited from caller).

void ich_set_dmamode(struct ata_port * ap, struct ata_device * adev)

Initialize host controller PATA DMA timings

Parameters

struct ata_port * ap
Port whose timings we are configuring
struct ata_device * adev
um

Description

Set MW/UDMA mode for device, in host controller PCI config space.

LOCKING: None (inherited from caller).

int piix_check_450nx_errata(struct pci_dev * ata_dev)

Check for problem 450NX setup

Parameters

struct pci_dev * ata_dev
the PCI device to check

Description

Check for the present of 450NX errata #19 and errata #25. If they are found return an error code so we can turn off DMA
int piix_init_one(struct pci_dev * pdev, const struct pci_device_id * ent)

Register PIIX ATA PCI device with kernel services

Parameters

struct pci_dev * pdev
PCI device to register
const struct pci_device_id * ent
Entry in piix_pci_tbl matching with pdev

Description

Called from kernel PCI layer. We probe for combined mode (sigh), and then hand over control to libata, for it to do the rest.

LOCKING: Inherited from PCI layer (may sleep).

Return

Zero on success, or -ERRNO value.

sata_sil Internals

int sil_set_mode(struct ata_link * link, struct ata_device ** r_failed)

wrap set_mode functions

Parameters

struct ata_link * link
link to set up
struct ata_device ** r_failed
returned device when we fail

Description

Wrap the libata method for device setup as after the setup we need to inspect the results and do some configuration work
void sil_dev_config(struct ata_device * dev)

Apply device/host-specific errata fixups

Parameters

struct ata_device * dev
Device to be examined

Description

After the IDENTIFY [PACKET] DEVICE step is complete, and a device is known to be present, this function is called. We apply two errata fixups which are specific to Silicon Image, a Seagate and a Maxtor fixup.

For certain Seagate devices, we must limit the maximum sectors to under 8K.

For certain Maxtor devices, we must not program the drive beyond udma5.

Both fixups are unfairly pessimistic. As soon as I get more information on these errata, I will create a more exhaustive list, and apply the fixups to only the specific devices/hosts/firmwares that need it.

20040111 - Seagate drives affected by the Mod15Write bug are blacklisted The Maxtor quirk is in the blacklist, but I'm keeping the original pessimistic fix for the following reasons... - There seems to be less info on it, only one device gleaned off the Windows driver, maybe only one is affected. More info would be greatly appreciated. - But then again UDMA5 is hardly anything to complain about

Thanks

The bulk of the ATA knowledge comes thanks to long conversations with Andre Hedrick (www.linux-ide.org), and long hours pondering the ATA and SCSI specifications.

Thanks to Alan Cox for pointing out similarities between SATA and SCSI, and in general for motivation to hack on libata.

libata's device detection method, ata_pio_devchk, and in general all the early probing was based on extensive study of Hale Landis's probe/reset code in his ATADRVR driver (www.ata-atapi.com).