SCSI Interfaces Guide

Author:James Bottomley
Author:Rob Landley

Introduction

Protocol vs bus

Once upon a time, the Small Computer Systems Interface defined both a parallel I/O bus and a data protocol to connect a wide variety of peripherals (disk drives, tape drives, modems, printers, scanners, optical drives, test equipment, and medical devices) to a host computer.

Although the old parallel (fast/wide/ultra) SCSI bus has largely fallen out of use, the SCSI command set is more widely used than ever to communicate with devices over a number of different busses.

The SCSI protocol is a big-endian peer-to-peer packet based protocol. SCSI commands are 6, 10, 12, or 16 bytes long, often followed by an associated data payload.

SCSI commands can be transported over just about any kind of bus, and are the default protocol for storage devices attached to USB, SATA, SAS, Fibre Channel, FireWire, and ATAPI devices. SCSI packets are also commonly exchanged over Infiniband, I2O, TCP/IP (iSCSI), even Parallel ports.

Design of the Linux SCSI subsystem

The SCSI subsystem uses a three layer design, with upper, mid, and low layers. Every operation involving the SCSI subsystem (such as reading a sector from a disk) uses one driver at each of the 3 levels: one upper layer driver, one lower layer driver, and the SCSI midlayer.

The SCSI upper layer provides the interface between userspace and the kernel, in the form of block and char device nodes for I/O and ioctl(). The SCSI lower layer contains drivers for specific hardware devices.

In between is the SCSI mid-layer, analogous to a network routing layer such as the IPv4 stack. The SCSI mid-layer routes a packet based data protocol between the upper layer's /dev nodes and the corresponding devices in the lower layer. It manages command queues, provides error handling and power management functions, and responds to ioctl() requests.

SCSI upper layer

The upper layer supports the user-kernel interface by providing device nodes.

sd (SCSI Disk)

sd (sd_mod.o)

sr (SCSI CD-ROM)

sr (sr_mod.o)

st (SCSI Tape)

st (st.o)

sg (SCSI Generic)

sg (sg.o)

ch (SCSI Media Changer)

ch (ch.c)

SCSI mid layer

SCSI midlayer implementation

include/scsi/scsi_device.h

struct scsi_vpd

SCSI Vital Product Data

Definition

struct scsi_vpd {
  struct rcu_head rcu;
  int len;
  unsigned char   data[];
};

Members

rcu
For kfree_rcu().
len
Length in bytes of data.
data
VPD data as defined in various T10 SCSI standard documents.
shost_for_each_device(sdev, shost)

iterate over all devices of a host

Parameters

sdev
the struct scsi_device to use as a cursor
shost
the struct scsi_host to iterate over

Description

Iterator that returns each device attached to shost. This loop takes a reference on each device and releases it at the end. If you break out of the loop, you must call scsi_device_put(sdev).

__shost_for_each_device(sdev, shost)

iterate over all devices of a host (UNLOCKED)

Parameters

sdev
the struct scsi_device to use as a cursor
shost
the struct scsi_host to iterate over

Description

Iterator that returns each device attached to shost. It does _not_ take a reference on the scsi_device, so the whole loop must be protected by shost->host_lock.

Note

The only reason to use this is because you need to access the device list in interrupt context. Otherwise you really want to use shost_for_each_device instead.

int scsi_device_supports_vpd(struct scsi_device * sdev)

test if a device supports VPD pages

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
the struct scsi_device to test

Description

If the 'try_vpd_pages' flag is set it takes precedence. Otherwise we will assume VPD pages are supported if the SCSI level is at least SPC-3 and 'skip_vpd_pages' is not set.

drivers/scsi/scsi.c

Main file for the SCSI midlayer.

void scsi_cmd_get_serial(struct Scsi_Host * host, struct scsi_cmnd * cmd)

Assign a serial number to a command

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * host
the scsi host
struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
command to assign serial number to

Description

a serial number identifies a request for error recovery and debugging purposes. Protected by the Host_Lock of host.

int scsi_change_queue_depth(struct scsi_device * sdev, int depth)

change a device's queue depth

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI Device in question
int depth
number of commands allowed to be queued to the driver

Description

Sets the device queue depth and returns the new value.

int scsi_track_queue_full(struct scsi_device * sdev, int depth)

track QUEUE_FULL events to adjust queue depth

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI Device in question
int depth
Current number of outstanding SCSI commands on this device, not counting the one returned as QUEUE_FULL.

Description

This function will track successive QUEUE_FULL events on a
specific SCSI device to determine if and when there is a need to adjust the queue depth on the device.

Return

0 - No change needed, >0 - Adjust queue depth to this new depth,
-1 - Drop back to untagged operation using host->cmd_per_lun
as the untagged command depth

Lock Status: None held on entry

Notes

Low level drivers may call this at any time and we will do
"The Right Thing." We are interrupt context safe.
int scsi_get_vpd_page(struct scsi_device * sdev, u8 page, unsigned char * buf, int buf_len)

Get Vital Product Data from a SCSI device

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
The device to ask
u8 page
Which Vital Product Data to return
unsigned char * buf
where to store the VPD
int buf_len
number of bytes in the VPD buffer area

Description

SCSI devices may optionally supply Vital Product Data. Each 'page' of VPD is defined in the appropriate SCSI document (eg SPC, SBC). If the device supports this VPD page, this routine returns a pointer to a buffer containing the data from that page. The caller is responsible for calling kfree() on this pointer when it is no longer needed. If we cannot retrieve the VPD page this routine returns NULL.

int scsi_report_opcode(struct scsi_device * sdev, unsigned char * buffer, unsigned int len, unsigned char opcode)

Find out if a given command opcode is supported

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device to query
unsigned char * buffer
scratch buffer (must be at least 20 bytes long)
unsigned int len
length of buffer
unsigned char opcode
opcode for command to look up

Description

Uses the REPORT SUPPORTED OPERATION CODES to look up the given opcode. Returns -EINVAL if RSOC fails, 0 if the command opcode is unsupported and 1 if the device claims to support the command.

int scsi_device_get(struct scsi_device * sdev)

get an additional reference to a scsi_device

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
device to get a reference to

Description

Gets a reference to the scsi_device and increments the use count of the underlying LLDD module. You must hold host_lock of the parent Scsi_Host or already have a reference when calling this.

This will fail if a device is deleted or cancelled, or when the LLD module is in the process of being unloaded.

void scsi_device_put(struct scsi_device * sdev)

release a reference to a scsi_device

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
device to release a reference on.

Description

Release a reference to the scsi_device and decrements the use count of the underlying LLDD module. The device is freed once the last user vanishes.

void starget_for_each_device(struct scsi_target * starget, void * data, void (*fn) (struct scsi_device *, void *)

helper to walk all devices of a target

Parameters

struct scsi_target * starget
target whose devices we want to iterate over.
void * data
Opaque passed to each function call.
void (*)(struct scsi_device *, void *) fn
Function to call on each device

Description

This traverses over each device of starget. The devices have a reference that must be released by scsi_host_put when breaking out of the loop.

void __starget_for_each_device(struct scsi_target * starget, void * data, void (*fn) (struct scsi_device *, void *)

helper to walk all devices of a target (UNLOCKED)

Parameters

struct scsi_target * starget
target whose devices we want to iterate over.
void * data
parameter for callback fn()
void (*)(struct scsi_device *, void *) fn
callback function that is invoked for each device

Description

This traverses over each device of starget. It does _not_ take a reference on the scsi_device, so the whole loop must be protected by shost->host_lock.

Note

The only reason why drivers would want to use this is because they need to access the device list in irq context. Otherwise you really want to use starget_for_each_device instead.

struct scsi_device * __scsi_device_lookup_by_target(struct scsi_target * starget, u64 lun)

find a device given the target (UNLOCKED)

Parameters

struct scsi_target * starget
SCSI target pointer
u64 lun
SCSI Logical Unit Number

Description

Looks up the scsi_device with the specified lun for a given starget. The returned scsi_device does not have an additional reference. You must hold the host's host_lock over this call and any access to the returned scsi_device. A scsi_device in state SDEV_DEL is skipped.

Note

The only reason why drivers should use this is because they need to access the device list in irq context. Otherwise you really want to use scsi_device_lookup_by_target instead.

struct scsi_device * scsi_device_lookup_by_target(struct scsi_target * starget, u64 lun)

find a device given the target

Parameters

struct scsi_target * starget
SCSI target pointer
u64 lun
SCSI Logical Unit Number

Description

Looks up the scsi_device with the specified lun for a given starget. The returned scsi_device has an additional reference that needs to be released with scsi_device_put once you're done with it.

struct scsi_device * __scsi_device_lookup(struct Scsi_Host * shost, uint channel, uint id, u64 lun)

find a device given the host (UNLOCKED)

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
SCSI host pointer
uint channel
SCSI channel (zero if only one channel)
uint id
SCSI target number (physical unit number)
u64 lun
SCSI Logical Unit Number

Description

Looks up the scsi_device with the specified channel, id, lun for a given host. The returned scsi_device does not have an additional reference. You must hold the host's host_lock over this call and any access to the returned scsi_device.

Note

The only reason why drivers would want to use this is because they need to access the device list in irq context. Otherwise you really want to use scsi_device_lookup instead.

struct scsi_device * scsi_device_lookup(struct Scsi_Host * shost, uint channel, uint id, u64 lun)

find a device given the host

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
SCSI host pointer
uint channel
SCSI channel (zero if only one channel)
uint id
SCSI target number (physical unit number)
u64 lun
SCSI Logical Unit Number

Description

Looks up the scsi_device with the specified channel, id, lun for a given host. The returned scsi_device has an additional reference that needs to be released with scsi_device_put once you're done with it.

drivers/scsi/scsicam.c

SCSI Common Access Method support functions, for use with HDIO_GETGEO, etc.

unsigned char * scsi_bios_ptable(struct block_device * dev)

Read PC partition table out of first sector of device.

Parameters

struct block_device * dev
from this device

Description

Reads the first sector from the device and returns 0x42 bytes
starting at offset 0x1be.

Return

partition table in kmalloc(GFP_KERNEL) memory, or NULL on error.

int scsicam_bios_param(struct block_device * bdev, sector_t capacity, int * ip)

Determine geometry of a disk in cylinders/heads/sectors.

Parameters

struct block_device * bdev
which device
sector_t capacity
size of the disk in sectors
int * ip
return value: ip[0]=heads, ip[1]=sectors, ip[2]=cylinders

Description

determine the BIOS mapping/geometry used for a drive in a
SCSI-CAM system, storing the results in ip as required by the HDIO_GETGEO ioctl().

Return

-1 on failure, 0 on success.

int scsi_partsize(unsigned char * buf, unsigned long capacity, unsigned int * cyls, unsigned int * hds, unsigned int * secs)

Parse cylinders/heads/sectors from PC partition table

Parameters

unsigned char * buf
partition table, see scsi_bios_ptable()
unsigned long capacity
size of the disk in sectors
unsigned int * cyls
put cylinders here
unsigned int * hds
put heads here
unsigned int * secs
put sectors here

Description

Determine the BIOS mapping/geometry used to create the partition table, storing the results in cyls, hds, and secs

Return

-1 on failure, 0 on success.

drivers/scsi/scsi_error.c

Common SCSI error/timeout handling routines.

void scsi_schedule_eh(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

schedule EH for SCSI host

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
SCSI host to invoke error handling on.

Description

Schedule SCSI EH without scmd.

int scsi_block_when_processing_errors(struct scsi_device * sdev)

Prevent cmds from being queued.

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
Device on which we are performing recovery.

Description

We block until the host is out of error recovery, and then check to see whether the host or the device is offline.
Return value:
0 when dev was taken offline by error recovery. 1 OK to proceed.
int scsi_check_sense(struct scsi_cmnd * scmd)

Examine scsi cmd sense

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * scmd
Cmd to have sense checked.

Description

Return value:
SUCCESS or FAILED or NEEDS_RETRY or ADD_TO_MLQUEUE

Notes

When a deferred error is detected the current command has not been executed and needs retrying.
void scsi_eh_prep_cmnd(struct scsi_cmnd * scmd, struct scsi_eh_save * ses, unsigned char * cmnd, int cmnd_size, unsigned sense_bytes)

Save a scsi command info as part of error recovery

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * scmd
SCSI command structure to hijack
struct scsi_eh_save * ses
structure to save restore information
unsigned char * cmnd
CDB to send. Can be NULL if no new cmnd is needed
int cmnd_size
size in bytes of cmnd (must be <= BLK_MAX_CDB)
unsigned sense_bytes
size of sense data to copy. or 0 (if != 0 cmnd is ignored)

Description

This function is used to save a scsi command information before re-execution as part of the error recovery process. If sense_bytes is 0 the command sent must be one that does not transfer any data. If sense_bytes != 0 cmnd is ignored and this functions sets up a REQUEST_SENSE command and cmnd buffers to read sense_bytes into scmd->sense_buffer.

void scsi_eh_restore_cmnd(struct scsi_cmnd * scmd, struct scsi_eh_save * ses)

Restore a scsi command info as part of error recovery

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * scmd
SCSI command structure to restore
struct scsi_eh_save * ses
saved information from a coresponding call to scsi_eh_prep_cmnd

Description

Undo any damage done by above scsi_eh_prep_cmnd().

void scsi_eh_finish_cmd(struct scsi_cmnd * scmd, struct list_head * done_q)

Handle a cmd that eh is finished with.

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * scmd
Original SCSI cmd that eh has finished.
struct list_head * done_q
Queue for processed commands.

Notes

We don't want to use the normal command completion while we are are still handling errors - it may cause other commands to be queued, and that would disturb what we are doing. Thus we really want to keep a list of pending commands for final completion, and once we are ready to leave error handling we handle completion for real.
int scsi_eh_get_sense(struct list_head * work_q, struct list_head * done_q)

Get device sense data.

Parameters

struct list_head * work_q
Queue of commands to process.
struct list_head * done_q
Queue of processed commands.

Description

See if we need to request sense information. if so, then get it now, so we have a better idea of what to do.

Notes

This has the unfortunate side effect that if a shost adapter does not automatically request sense information, we end up shutting it down before we request it.

All drivers should request sense information internally these days, so for now all I have to say is tough noogies if you end up in here.

XXX: Long term this code should go away, but that needs an audit of
all LLDDs first.
void scsi_eh_ready_devs(struct Scsi_Host * shost, struct list_head * work_q, struct list_head * done_q)

check device ready state and recover if not.

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
host to be recovered.
struct list_head * work_q
list_head for pending commands.
struct list_head * done_q
list_head for processed commands.
void scsi_eh_flush_done_q(struct list_head * done_q)

finish processed commands or retry them.

Parameters

struct list_head * done_q
list_head of processed commands.
int scsi_ioctl_reset(struct scsi_device * dev, int __user * arg)

Parameters

struct scsi_device * dev
scsi_device to operate on
int __user * arg
reset type (see sg.h)
bool scsi_get_sense_info_fld(const u8 * sense_buffer, int sb_len, u64 * info_out)

get information field from sense data (either fixed or descriptor format)

Parameters

const u8 * sense_buffer
byte array of sense data
int sb_len
number of valid bytes in sense_buffer
u64 * info_out
pointer to 64 integer where 8 or 4 byte information field will be placed if found.

Description

Return value:
true if information field found, false if not found.

drivers/scsi/scsi_devinfo.c

Manage scsi_dev_info_list, which tracks blacklisted and whitelisted devices.

int scsi_dev_info_list_add(int compatible, char * vendor, char * model, char * strflags, blist_flags_t flags)

add one dev_info list entry.

Parameters

int compatible
if true, null terminate short strings. Otherwise space pad.
char * vendor
vendor string
char * model
model (product) string
char * strflags
integer string
blist_flags_t flags
if strflags NULL, use this flag value

Description

Create and add one dev_info entry for vendor, model, strflags or flag. If compatible, add to the tail of the list, do not space pad, and set devinfo->compatible. The scsi_static_device_list entries are added with compatible 1 and clfags NULL.

Return

0 OK, -error on failure.

struct scsi_dev_info_list * scsi_dev_info_list_find(const char * vendor, const char * model, enum scsi_devinfo_key key)

find a matching dev_info list entry.

Parameters

const char * vendor
full vendor string
const char * model
full model (product) string
enum scsi_devinfo_key key
specify list to use

Description

Finds the first dev_info entry matching vendor, model in list specified by key.

Return

pointer to matching entry, or ERR_PTR on failure.

int scsi_dev_info_list_add_str(char * dev_list)

parse dev_list and add to the scsi_dev_info_list.

Parameters

char * dev_list
string of device flags to add

Description

Parse dev_list, and add entries to the scsi_dev_info_list. dev_list is of the form "vendor:product:flag,vendor:product:flag". dev_list is modified via strsep. Can be called for command line addition, for proc or mabye a sysfs interface.

Return

0 if OK, -error on failure.

blist_flags_t scsi_get_device_flags(struct scsi_device * sdev, const unsigned char * vendor, const unsigned char * model)

get device specific flags from the dynamic device list.

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi_device to get flags for
const unsigned char * vendor
vendor name
const unsigned char * model
model name

Description

Search the global scsi_dev_info_list (specified by list zero) for an entry matching vendor and model, if found, return the matching flags value, else return the host or global default settings. Called during scan time.
void scsi_exit_devinfo(void)

remove /proc/scsi/device_info & the scsi_dev_info_list

Parameters

void
no arguments
int scsi_init_devinfo(void)

set up the dynamic device list.

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

Add command line entries from scsi_dev_flags, then add scsi_static_device_list entries to the scsi device info list.

drivers/scsi/scsi_ioctl.c

Handle ioctl() calls for SCSI devices.

int scsi_ioctl(struct scsi_device * sdev, int cmd, void __user * arg)

Dispatch ioctl to scsi device

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device receiving ioctl
int cmd
which ioctl is it
void __user * arg
data associated with ioctl

Description

The scsi_ioctl() function differs from most ioctls in that it does not take a major/minor number as the dev field. Rather, it takes a pointer to a struct scsi_device.

drivers/scsi/scsi_lib.c

SCSI queuing library.

int __scsi_execute(struct scsi_device * sdev, const unsigned char * cmd, int data_direction, void * buffer, unsigned bufflen, unsigned char * sense, struct scsi_sense_hdr * sshdr, int timeout, int retries, u64 flags, req_flags_t rq_flags, int * resid)

insert request and wait for the result

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device
const unsigned char * cmd
scsi command
int data_direction
data direction
void * buffer
data buffer
unsigned bufflen
len of buffer
unsigned char * sense
optional sense buffer
struct scsi_sense_hdr * sshdr
optional decoded sense header
int timeout
request timeout in seconds
int retries
number of times to retry request
u64 flags
flags for ->cmd_flags
req_flags_t rq_flags
flags for ->rq_flags
int * resid
optional residual length

Description

Returns the scsi_cmnd result field if a command was executed, or a negative Linux error code if we didn't get that far.

struct scsi_device * scsi_device_from_queue(struct request_queue * q)

return sdev associated with a request_queue

Parameters

struct request_queue * q
The request queue to return the sdev from

Description

Return the sdev associated with a request queue or NULL if the request_queue does not reference a SCSI device.

int scsi_mode_select(struct scsi_device * sdev, int pf, int sp, int modepage, unsigned char * buffer, int len, int timeout, int retries, struct scsi_mode_data * data, struct scsi_sense_hdr * sshdr)

issue a mode select

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI device to be queried
int pf
Page format bit (1 == standard, 0 == vendor specific)
int sp
Save page bit (0 == don't save, 1 == save)
int modepage
mode page being requested
unsigned char * buffer
request buffer (may not be smaller than eight bytes)
int len
length of request buffer.
int timeout
command timeout
int retries
number of retries before failing
struct scsi_mode_data * data
returns a structure abstracting the mode header data
struct scsi_sense_hdr * sshdr
place to put sense data (or NULL if no sense to be collected). must be SCSI_SENSE_BUFFERSIZE big.

Description

Returns zero if successful; negative error number or scsi status on error
int scsi_mode_sense(struct scsi_device * sdev, int dbd, int modepage, unsigned char * buffer, int len, int timeout, int retries, struct scsi_mode_data * data, struct scsi_sense_hdr * sshdr)

issue a mode sense, falling back from 10 to six bytes if necessary.

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI device to be queried
int dbd
set if mode sense will allow block descriptors to be returned
int modepage
mode page being requested
unsigned char * buffer
request buffer (may not be smaller than eight bytes)
int len
length of request buffer.
int timeout
command timeout
int retries
number of retries before failing
struct scsi_mode_data * data
returns a structure abstracting the mode header data
struct scsi_sense_hdr * sshdr
place to put sense data (or NULL if no sense to be collected). must be SCSI_SENSE_BUFFERSIZE big.

Description

Returns zero if unsuccessful, or the header offset (either 4 or 8 depending on whether a six or ten byte command was issued) if successful.
int scsi_test_unit_ready(struct scsi_device * sdev, int timeout, int retries, struct scsi_sense_hdr * sshdr)

test if unit is ready

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device to change the state of.
int timeout
command timeout
int retries
number of retries before failing
struct scsi_sense_hdr * sshdr
outpout pointer for decoded sense information.

Description

Returns zero if unsuccessful or an error if TUR failed. For removable media, UNIT_ATTENTION sets ->changed flag.
int scsi_device_set_state(struct scsi_device * sdev, enum scsi_device_state state)

Take the given device through the device state model.

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device to change the state of.
enum scsi_device_state state
state to change to.

Description

Returns zero if successful or an error if the requested transition is illegal.
void sdev_evt_send(struct scsi_device * sdev, struct scsi_event * evt)

send asserted event to uevent thread

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi_device event occurred on
struct scsi_event * evt
event to send

Description

Assert scsi device event asynchronously.
struct scsi_event * sdev_evt_alloc(enum scsi_device_event evt_type, gfp_t gfpflags)

allocate a new scsi event

Parameters

enum scsi_device_event evt_type
type of event to allocate
gfp_t gfpflags
GFP flags for allocation

Description

Allocates and returns a new scsi_event.
void sdev_evt_send_simple(struct scsi_device * sdev, enum scsi_device_event evt_type, gfp_t gfpflags)

send asserted event to uevent thread

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi_device event occurred on
enum scsi_device_event evt_type
type of event to send
gfp_t gfpflags
GFP flags for allocation

Description

Assert scsi device event asynchronously, given an event type.
int scsi_device_quiesce(struct scsi_device * sdev)

Block user issued commands.

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device to quiesce.

Description

This works by trying to transition to the SDEV_QUIESCE state (which must be a legal transition). When the device is in this state, only special requests will be accepted, all others will be deferred. Since special requests may also be requeued requests, a successful return doesn't guarantee the device will be totally quiescent.

Must be called with user context, may sleep.

Returns zero if unsuccessful or an error if not.

void scsi_device_resume(struct scsi_device * sdev)

Restart user issued commands to a quiesced device.

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device to resume.

Description

Moves the device from quiesced back to running and restarts the queues.

Must be called with user context, may sleep.

int scsi_internal_device_block_nowait(struct scsi_device * sdev)

try to transition to the SDEV_BLOCK state

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
device to block

Description

Pause SCSI command processing on the specified device. Does not sleep.

Returns zero if successful or a negative error code upon failure.

Notes

This routine transitions the device to the SDEV_BLOCK state (which must be a legal transition). When the device is in this state, command processing is paused until the device leaves the SDEV_BLOCK state. See also scsi_internal_device_unblock_nowait().

int scsi_internal_device_unblock_nowait(struct scsi_device * sdev, enum scsi_device_state new_state)

resume a device after a block request

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
device to resume
enum scsi_device_state new_state
state to set the device to after unblocking

Description

Restart the device queue for a previously suspended SCSI device. Does not sleep.

Returns zero if successful or a negative error code upon failure.

Notes

This routine transitions the device to the SDEV_RUNNING state or to one of the offline states (which must be a legal transition) allowing the midlayer to goose the queue for this device.

void * scsi_kmap_atomic_sg(struct scatterlist * sgl, int sg_count, size_t * offset, size_t * len)

find and atomically map an sg-elemnt

Parameters

struct scatterlist * sgl
scatter-gather list
int sg_count
number of segments in sg
size_t * offset
offset in bytes into sg, on return offset into the mapped area
size_t * len
bytes to map, on return number of bytes mapped

Description

Returns virtual address of the start of the mapped page

void scsi_kunmap_atomic_sg(void * virt)

atomically unmap a virtual address, previously mapped with scsi_kmap_atomic_sg

Parameters

void * virt
virtual address to be unmapped
int scsi_vpd_lun_id(struct scsi_device * sdev, char * id, size_t id_len)

return a unique device identification

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
SCSI device
char * id
buffer for the identification
size_t id_len
length of the buffer

Description

Copies a unique device identification into id based on the information in the VPD page 0x83 of the device. The string will be formatted as a SCSI name string.

Returns the length of the identification or error on failure. If the identifier is longer than the supplied buffer the actual identifier length is returned and the buffer is not zero-padded.

drivers/scsi/scsi_lib_dma.c

SCSI library functions depending on DMA (map and unmap scatter-gather lists).

int scsi_dma_map(struct scsi_cmnd * cmd)

perform DMA mapping against command's sg lists

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
scsi command

Description

Returns the number of sg lists actually used, zero if the sg lists is NULL, or -ENOMEM if the mapping failed.

void scsi_dma_unmap(struct scsi_cmnd * cmd)

unmap command's sg lists mapped by scsi_dma_map

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
scsi command

drivers/scsi/scsi_proc.c

The functions in this file provide an interface between the PROC file system and the SCSI device drivers It is mainly used for debugging, statistics and to pass information directly to the lowlevel driver. I.E. plumbing to manage /proc/scsi/*

void scsi_proc_hostdir_add(struct scsi_host_template * sht)

Create directory in /proc for a scsi host

Parameters

struct scsi_host_template * sht
owner of this directory

Description

Sets sht->proc_dir to the new directory.

void scsi_proc_hostdir_rm(struct scsi_host_template * sht)

remove directory in /proc for a scsi host

Parameters

struct scsi_host_template * sht
owner of directory
void scsi_proc_host_add(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

Add entry for this host to appropriate /proc dir

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
host to add
void scsi_proc_host_rm(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

remove this host's entry from /proc

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
which host
int proc_print_scsidevice(struct device * dev, void * data)

return data about this host

Parameters

struct device * dev
A scsi device
void * data
struct seq_file to output to.

Description

prints Host, Channel, Id, Lun, Vendor, Model, Rev, Type, and revision.

int scsi_add_single_device(uint host, uint channel, uint id, uint lun)

Respond to user request to probe for/add device

Parameters

uint host
user-supplied decimal integer
uint channel
user-supplied decimal integer
uint id
user-supplied decimal integer
uint lun
user-supplied decimal integer

Description

called by writing "scsi add-single-device" to /proc/scsi/scsi.

does scsi_host_lookup() and either user_scan() if that transport type supports it, or else scsi_scan_host_selected()

Note

this seems to be aimed exclusively at SCSI parallel busses.

int scsi_remove_single_device(uint host, uint channel, uint id, uint lun)

Respond to user request to remove a device

Parameters

uint host
user-supplied decimal integer
uint channel
user-supplied decimal integer
uint id
user-supplied decimal integer
uint lun
user-supplied decimal integer

Description

called by writing "scsi remove-single-device" to /proc/scsi/scsi. Does a scsi_device_lookup() and scsi_remove_device()

ssize_t proc_scsi_write(struct file * file, const char __user * buf, size_t length, loff_t * ppos)

handle writes to /proc/scsi/scsi

Parameters

struct file * file
not used
const char __user * buf
buffer to write
size_t length
length of buf, at most PAGE_SIZE
loff_t * ppos
not used

Description

this provides a legacy mechanism to add or remove devices by Host, Channel, ID, and Lun. To use, "echo 'scsi add-single-device 0 1 2 3' > /proc/scsi/scsi" or "echo 'scsi remove-single-device 0 1 2 3' > /proc/scsi/scsi" with "0 1 2 3" replaced by the Host, Channel, Id, and Lun.

Note

this seems to be aimed at parallel SCSI. Most modern busses (USB, SATA, Firewire, Fibre Channel, etc) dynamically assign these values to provide a unique identifier and nothing more.

int proc_scsi_open(struct inode * inode, struct file * file)

glue function

Parameters

struct inode * inode
not used
struct file * file
passed to single_open()

Description

Associates proc_scsi_show with this file

int scsi_init_procfs(void)

create scsi and scsi/scsi in procfs

Parameters

void
no arguments
void scsi_exit_procfs(void)

Remove scsi/scsi and scsi from procfs

Parameters

void
no arguments

drivers/scsi/scsi_scan.c

Scan a host to determine which (if any) devices are attached. The general scanning/probing algorithm is as follows, exceptions are made to it depending on device specific flags, compilation options, and global variable (boot or module load time) settings. A specific LUN is scanned via an INQUIRY command; if the LUN has a device attached, a scsi_device is allocated and setup for it. For every id of every channel on the given host, start by scanning LUN 0. Skip hosts that don't respond at all to a scan of LUN 0. Otherwise, if LUN 0 has a device attached, allocate and setup a scsi_device for it. If target is SCSI-3 or up, issue a REPORT LUN, and scan all of the LUNs returned by the REPORT LUN; else, sequentially scan LUNs up until some maximum is reached, or a LUN is seen that cannot have a device attached to it.

int scsi_complete_async_scans(void)

Wait for asynchronous scans to complete

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

When this function returns, any host which started scanning before this function was called will have finished its scan. Hosts which started scanning after this function was called may or may not have finished.

void scsi_unlock_floptical(struct scsi_device * sdev, unsigned char * result)

unlock device via a special MODE SENSE command

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device to send command to
unsigned char * result
area to store the result of the MODE SENSE

Description

Send a vendor specific MODE SENSE (not a MODE SELECT) command. Called for BLIST_KEY devices.
struct scsi_device * scsi_alloc_sdev(struct scsi_target * starget, u64 lun, void * hostdata)

allocate and setup a scsi_Device

Parameters

struct scsi_target * starget
which target to allocate a scsi_device for
u64 lun
which lun
void * hostdata
usually NULL and set by ->slave_alloc instead

Description

Allocate, initialize for io, and return a pointer to a scsi_Device. Stores the shost, channel, id, and lun in the scsi_Device, and adds scsi_Device to the appropriate list.
Return value:
scsi_Device pointer, or NULL on failure.
void scsi_target_reap_ref_release(struct kref * kref)

remove target from visibility

Parameters

struct kref * kref
the reap_ref in the target being released

Description

Called on last put of reap_ref, which is the indication that no device under this target is visible anymore, so render the target invisible in sysfs. Note: we have to be in user context here because the target reaps should be done in places where the scsi device visibility is being removed.

struct scsi_target * scsi_alloc_target(struct device * parent, int channel, uint id)

allocate a new or find an existing target

Parameters

struct device * parent
parent of the target (need not be a scsi host)
int channel
target channel number (zero if no channels)
uint id
target id number

Description

Return an existing target if one exists, provided it hasn't already gone into STARGET_DEL state, otherwise allocate a new target.

The target is returned with an incremented reference, so the caller is responsible for both reaping and doing a last put

void scsi_target_reap(struct scsi_target * starget)

check to see if target is in use and destroy if not

Parameters

struct scsi_target * starget
target to be checked

Description

This is used after removing a LUN or doing a last put of the target it checks atomically that nothing is using the target and removes it if so.

int scsi_probe_lun(struct scsi_device * sdev, unsigned char * inq_result, int result_len, blist_flags_t * bflags)

probe a single LUN using a SCSI INQUIRY

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi_device to probe
unsigned char * inq_result
area to store the INQUIRY result
int result_len
len of inq_result
blist_flags_t * bflags
store any bflags found here

Description

Probe the lun associated with req using a standard SCSI INQUIRY;

If the INQUIRY is successful, zero is returned and the INQUIRY data is in inq_result; the scsi_level and INQUIRY length are copied to the scsi_device any flags value is stored in *bflags.

int scsi_add_lun(struct scsi_device * sdev, unsigned char * inq_result, blist_flags_t * bflags, int async)

allocate and fully initialze a scsi_device

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
holds information to be stored in the new scsi_device
unsigned char * inq_result
holds the result of a previous INQUIRY to the LUN
blist_flags_t * bflags
black/white list flag
int async
1 if this device is being scanned asynchronously

Description

Initialize the scsi_device sdev. Optionally set fields based on values in *bflags.

Return

SCSI_SCAN_NO_RESPONSE: could not allocate or setup a scsi_device SCSI_SCAN_LUN_PRESENT: a new scsi_device was allocated and initialized
unsigned char * scsi_inq_str(unsigned char * buf, unsigned char * inq, unsigned first, unsigned end)

print INQUIRY data from min to max index, strip trailing whitespace

Parameters

unsigned char * buf
Output buffer with at least end-first+1 bytes of space
unsigned char * inq
Inquiry buffer (input)
unsigned first
Offset of string into inq
unsigned end
Index after last character in inq
int scsi_probe_and_add_lun(struct scsi_target * starget, u64 lun, blist_flags_t * bflagsp, struct scsi_device ** sdevp, enum scsi_scan_mode rescan, void * hostdata)

probe a LUN, if a LUN is found add it

Parameters

struct scsi_target * starget
pointer to target device structure
u64 lun
LUN of target device
blist_flags_t * bflagsp
store bflags here if not NULL
struct scsi_device ** sdevp
probe the LUN corresponding to this scsi_device
enum scsi_scan_mode rescan
if not equal to SCSI_SCAN_INITIAL skip some code only needed on first scan
void * hostdata
passed to scsi_alloc_sdev()

Description

Call scsi_probe_lun, if a LUN with an attached device is found, allocate and set it up by calling scsi_add_lun.

Return

  • SCSI_SCAN_NO_RESPONSE: could not allocate or setup a scsi_device
  • SCSI_SCAN_TARGET_PRESENT: target responded, but no device is
    attached at the LUN
  • SCSI_SCAN_LUN_PRESENT: a new scsi_device was allocated and initialized
void scsi_sequential_lun_scan(struct scsi_target * starget, blist_flags_t bflags, int scsi_level, enum scsi_scan_mode rescan)

sequentially scan a SCSI target

Parameters

struct scsi_target * starget
pointer to target structure to scan
blist_flags_t bflags
black/white list flag for LUN 0
int scsi_level
Which version of the standard does this device adhere to
enum scsi_scan_mode rescan
passed to scsi_probe_add_lun()

Description

Generally, scan from LUN 1 (LUN 0 is assumed to already have been scanned) to some maximum lun until a LUN is found with no device attached. Use the bflags to figure out any oddities.

Modifies sdevscan->lun.

int scsi_report_lun_scan(struct scsi_target * starget, blist_flags_t bflags, enum scsi_scan_mode rescan)

Scan using SCSI REPORT LUN results

Parameters

struct scsi_target * starget
which target
blist_flags_t bflags
Zero or a mix of BLIST_NOLUN, BLIST_REPORTLUN2, or BLIST_NOREPORTLUN
enum scsi_scan_mode rescan
nonzero if we can skip code only needed on first scan

Description

Fast scanning for modern (SCSI-3) devices by sending a REPORT LUN command. Scan the resulting list of LUNs by calling scsi_probe_and_add_lun.

If BLINK_REPORTLUN2 is set, scan a target that supports more than 8 LUNs even if it's older than SCSI-3. If BLIST_NOREPORTLUN is set, return 1 always. If BLIST_NOLUN is set, return 0 always. If starget->no_report_luns is set, return 1 always.

Return

0: scan completed (or no memory, so further scanning is futile) 1: could not scan with REPORT LUN
struct async_scan_data * scsi_prep_async_scan(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

prepare for an async scan

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
the host which will be scanned

Return

a cookie to be passed to scsi_finish_async_scan()

Tells the midlayer this host is going to do an asynchronous scan. It reserves the host's position in the scanning list and ensures that other asynchronous scans started after this one won't affect the ordering of the discovered devices.

void scsi_finish_async_scan(struct async_scan_data * data)

asynchronous scan has finished

Parameters

struct async_scan_data * data
cookie returned from earlier call to scsi_prep_async_scan()

Description

All the devices currently attached to this host have been found. This function announces all the devices it has found to the rest of the system.

drivers/scsi/scsi_sysctl.c

Set up the sysctl entry: "/dev/scsi/logging_level" (DEV_SCSI_LOGGING_LEVEL) which sets/returns scsi_logging_level.

drivers/scsi/scsi_sysfs.c

SCSI sysfs interface routines.

void scsi_remove_device(struct scsi_device * sdev)

unregister a device from the scsi bus

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi_device to unregister
void scsi_remove_target(struct device * dev)

try to remove a target and all its devices

Parameters

struct device * dev
generic starget or parent of generic stargets to be removed

Note

This is slightly racy. It is possible that if the user requests the addition of another device then the target won't be removed.

drivers/scsi/hosts.c

mid to lowlevel SCSI driver interface

void scsi_remove_host(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

remove a scsi host

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
a pointer to a scsi host to remove
int scsi_add_host_with_dma(struct Scsi_Host * shost, struct device * dev, struct device * dma_dev)

add a scsi host with dma device

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
scsi host pointer to add
struct device * dev
a struct device of type scsi class
struct device * dma_dev
dma device for the host

Note

You rarely need to worry about this unless you're in a virtualised host environments, so use the simpler scsi_add_host() function instead.

Return value:
0 on success / != 0 for error
struct Scsi_Host * scsi_host_alloc(struct scsi_host_template * sht, int privsize)

register a scsi host adapter instance.

Parameters

struct scsi_host_template * sht
pointer to scsi host template
int privsize
extra bytes to allocate for driver

Note

Allocate a new Scsi_Host and perform basic initialization. The host is not published to the scsi midlayer until scsi_add_host is called.
Return value:
Pointer to a new Scsi_Host
struct Scsi_Host * scsi_host_lookup(unsigned short hostnum)

get a reference to a Scsi_Host by host no

Parameters

unsigned short hostnum
host number to locate

Description

Return value:

A pointer to located Scsi_Host or NULL.

The caller must do a scsi_host_put() to drop the reference that scsi_host_get() took. The put_device() below dropped the reference from class_find_device().

struct Scsi_Host * scsi_host_get(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

inc a Scsi_Host ref count

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
Pointer to Scsi_Host to inc.
int scsi_host_busy(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

Return the host busy counter

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
Pointer to Scsi_Host to inc.
void scsi_host_put(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

dec a Scsi_Host ref count

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
Pointer to Scsi_Host to dec.
int scsi_queue_work(struct Scsi_Host * shost, struct work_struct * work)

Queue work to the Scsi_Host workqueue.

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
Pointer to Scsi_Host.
struct work_struct * work
Work to queue for execution.

Description

Return value:
1 - work queued for execution 0 - work is already queued -EINVAL - work queue doesn't exist
void scsi_flush_work(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

Flush a Scsi_Host's workqueue.

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
Pointer to Scsi_Host.

drivers/scsi/scsi_common.c

general support functions

const char * scsi_device_type(unsigned type)

Return 17-char string indicating device type.

Parameters

unsigned type
type number to look up
u64 scsilun_to_int(struct scsi_lun * scsilun)

convert a scsi_lun to an int

Parameters

struct scsi_lun * scsilun
struct scsi_lun to be converted.

Description

Convert scsilun from a struct scsi_lun to a four-byte host byte-ordered integer, and return the result. The caller must check for truncation before using this function.

Notes

For a description of the LUN format, post SCSI-3 see the SCSI Architecture Model, for SCSI-3 see the SCSI Controller Commands.

Given a struct scsi_lun of: d2 04 0b 03 00 00 00 00, this function returns the integer: 0x0b03d204

This encoding will return a standard integer LUN for LUNs smaller than 256, which typically use a single level LUN structure with addressing method 0.

void int_to_scsilun(u64 lun, struct scsi_lun * scsilun)

reverts an int into a scsi_lun

Parameters

u64 lun
integer to be reverted
struct scsi_lun * scsilun
struct scsi_lun to be set.

Description

Reverts the functionality of the scsilun_to_int, which packed an 8-byte lun value into an int. This routine unpacks the int back into the lun value.

Notes

Given an integer : 0x0b03d204, this function returns a struct scsi_lun of: d2 04 0b 03 00 00 00 00
bool scsi_normalize_sense(const u8 * sense_buffer, int sb_len, struct scsi_sense_hdr * sshdr)

normalize main elements from either fixed or descriptor sense data format into a common format.

Parameters

const u8 * sense_buffer
byte array containing sense data returned by device
int sb_len
number of valid bytes in sense_buffer
struct scsi_sense_hdr * sshdr
pointer to instance of structure that common elements are written to.

Notes

The "main elements" from sense data are: response_code, sense_key, asc, ascq and additional_length (only for descriptor format).

Typically this function can be called after a device has responded to a SCSI command with the CHECK_CONDITION status.

Return value:
true if valid sense data information found, else false;
const u8 * scsi_sense_desc_find(const u8 * sense_buffer, int sb_len, int desc_type)

search for a given descriptor type in descriptor sense data format.

Parameters

const u8 * sense_buffer
byte array of descriptor format sense data
int sb_len
number of valid bytes in sense_buffer
int desc_type
value of descriptor type to find (e.g. 0 -> information)

Notes

only valid when sense data is in descriptor format
Return value:
pointer to start of (first) descriptor if found else NULL
void scsi_build_sense_buffer(int desc, u8 * buf, u8 key, u8 asc, u8 ascq)

build sense data in a buffer

Parameters

int desc
Sense format (non-zero == descriptor format, 0 == fixed format)
u8 * buf
Where to build sense data
u8 key
Sense key
u8 asc
Additional sense code
u8 ascq
Additional sense code qualifier
int scsi_set_sense_information(u8 * buf, int buf_len, u64 info)

set the information field in a formatted sense data buffer

Parameters

u8 * buf
Where to build sense data
int buf_len
buffer length
u64 info
64-bit information value to be set

Description

Return value:
0 on success or -EINVAL for invalid sense buffer length
int scsi_set_sense_field_pointer(u8 * buf, int buf_len, u16 fp, u8 bp, bool cd)

set the field pointer sense key specific information in a formatted sense data buffer

Parameters

u8 * buf
Where to build sense data
int buf_len
buffer length
u16 fp
field pointer to be set
u8 bp
bit pointer to be set
bool cd
command/data bit

Description

Return value:
0 on success or -EINVAL for invalid sense buffer length

Transport classes

Transport classes are service libraries for drivers in the SCSI lower layer, which expose transport attributes in sysfs.

Fibre Channel transport

The file drivers/scsi/scsi_transport_fc.c defines transport attributes for Fibre Channel.

u32 fc_get_event_number(void)

Obtain the next sequential FC event number

Parameters

void
no arguments

Notes

We could have inlined this, but it would have required fc_event_seq to be exposed. For now, live with the subroutine call. Atomic used to avoid lock/unlock...
void fc_host_post_event(struct Scsi_Host * shost, u32 event_number, enum fc_host_event_code event_code, u32 event_data)

called to post an even on an fc_host.

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
host the event occurred on
u32 event_number
fc event number obtained from get_fc_event_number()
enum fc_host_event_code event_code
fc_host event being posted
u32 event_data
32bits of data for the event being posted

Notes

This routine assumes no locks are held on entry.
void fc_host_post_vendor_event(struct Scsi_Host * shost, u32 event_number, u32 data_len, char * data_buf, u64 vendor_id)

called to post a vendor unique event on an fc_host

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
host the event occurred on
u32 event_number
fc event number obtained from get_fc_event_number()
u32 data_len
amount, in bytes, of vendor unique data
char * data_buf
pointer to vendor unique data
u64 vendor_id
Vendor id

Notes

This routine assumes no locks are held on entry.
enum blk_eh_timer_return fc_eh_timed_out(struct scsi_cmnd * scmd)

FC Transport I/O timeout intercept handler

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * scmd
The SCSI command which timed out

Description

This routine protects against error handlers getting invoked while a rport is in a blocked state, typically due to a temporarily loss of connectivity. If the error handlers are allowed to proceed, requests to abort i/o, reset the target, etc will likely fail as there is no way to communicate with the device to perform the requested function. These failures may result in the midlayer taking the device offline, requiring manual intervention to restore operation.

This routine, called whenever an i/o times out, validates the state of the underlying rport. If the rport is blocked, it returns EH_RESET_TIMER, which will continue to reschedule the timeout. Eventually, either the device will return, or devloss_tmo will fire, and when the timeout then fires, it will be handled normally. If the rport is not blocked, normal error handling continues.

Notes

This routine assumes no locks are held on entry.
void fc_remove_host(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

called to terminate any fc_transport-related elements for a scsi host.

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
Which Scsi_Host

Description

This routine is expected to be called immediately preceding the a driver's call to scsi_remove_host().

WARNING: A driver utilizing the fc_transport, which fails to call
this routine prior to scsi_remove_host(), will leave dangling objects in /sys/class/fc_remote_ports. Access to any of these objects can result in a system crash !!!

Notes

This routine assumes no locks are held on entry.
struct fc_rport * fc_remote_port_add(struct Scsi_Host * shost, int channel, struct fc_rport_identifiers * ids)

notify fc transport of the existence of a remote FC port.

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
scsi host the remote port is connected to.
int channel
Channel on shost port connected to.
struct fc_rport_identifiers * ids
The world wide names, fc address, and FC4 port roles for the remote port.

Description

The LLDD calls this routine to notify the transport of the existence of a remote port. The LLDD provides the unique identifiers (wwpn,wwn) of the port, it's FC address (port_id), and the FC4 roles that are active for the port.

For ports that are FCP targets (aka scsi targets), the FC transport maintains consistent target id bindings on behalf of the LLDD. A consistent target id binding is an assignment of a target id to a remote port identifier, which persists while the scsi host is attached. The remote port can disappear, then later reappear, and it's target id assignment remains the same. This allows for shifts in FC addressing (if binding by wwpn or wwnn) with no apparent changes to the scsi subsystem which is based on scsi host number and target id values. Bindings are only valid during the attachment of the scsi host. If the host detaches, then later re-attaches, target id bindings may change.

This routine is responsible for returning a remote port structure. The routine will search the list of remote ports it maintains internally on behalf of consistent target id mappings. If found, the remote port structure will be reused. Otherwise, a new remote port structure will be allocated.

Whenever a remote port is allocated, a new fc_remote_port class device is created.

Should not be called from interrupt context.

Notes

This routine assumes no locks are held on entry.
void fc_remote_port_delete(struct fc_rport * rport)

notifies the fc transport that a remote port is no longer in existence.

Parameters

struct fc_rport * rport
The remote port that no longer exists

Description

The LLDD calls this routine to notify the transport that a remote port is no longer part of the topology. Note: Although a port may no longer be part of the topology, it may persist in the remote ports displayed by the fc_host. We do this under 2 conditions:

  1. If the port was a scsi target, we delay its deletion by "blocking" it. This allows the port to temporarily disappear, then reappear without disrupting the SCSI device tree attached to it. During the "blocked" period the port will still exist.
  2. If the port was a scsi target and disappears for longer than we expect, we'll delete the port and the tear down the SCSI device tree attached to it. However, we want to semi-persist the target id assigned to that port if it eventually does exist. The port structure will remain (although with minimal information) so that the target id bindings also remain.

If the remote port is not an FCP Target, it will be fully torn down and deallocated, including the fc_remote_port class device.

If the remote port is an FCP Target, the port will be placed in a temporary blocked state. From the LLDD's perspective, the rport no longer exists. From the SCSI midlayer's perspective, the SCSI target exists, but all sdevs on it are blocked from further I/O. The following is then expected.

If the remote port does not return (signaled by a LLDD call to fc_remote_port_add()) within the dev_loss_tmo timeout, then the scsi target is removed - killing all outstanding i/o and removing the scsi devices attached to it. The port structure will be marked Not Present and be partially cleared, leaving only enough information to recognize the remote port relative to the scsi target id binding if it later appears. The port will remain as long as there is a valid binding (e.g. until the user changes the binding type or unloads the scsi host with the binding).

If the remote port returns within the dev_loss_tmo value (and matches according to the target id binding type), the port structure will be reused. If it is no longer a SCSI target, the target will be torn down. If it continues to be a SCSI target, then the target will be unblocked (allowing i/o to be resumed), and a scan will be activated to ensure that all luns are detected.

Called from normal process context only - cannot be called from interrupt.

Notes

This routine assumes no locks are held on entry.
void fc_remote_port_rolechg(struct fc_rport * rport, u32 roles)

notifies the fc transport that the roles on a remote may have changed.

Parameters

struct fc_rport * rport
The remote port that changed.
u32 roles
New roles for this port.

Description

The LLDD calls this routine to notify the transport that the roles on a remote port may have changed. The largest effect of this is if a port now becomes a FCP Target, it must be allocated a scsi target id. If the port is no longer a FCP target, any scsi target id value assigned to it will persist in case the role changes back to include FCP Target. No changes in the scsi midlayer will be invoked if the role changes (in the expectation that the role will be resumed. If it doesn't normal error processing will take place).

Should not be called from interrupt context.

Notes

This routine assumes no locks are held on entry.
int fc_block_rport(struct fc_rport * rport)

Block SCSI eh thread for blocked fc_rport.

Parameters

struct fc_rport * rport
Remote port that scsi_eh is trying to recover.

Description

This routine can be called from a FC LLD scsi_eh callback. It blocks the scsi_eh thread until the fc_rport leaves the FC_PORTSTATE_BLOCKED, or the fast_io_fail_tmo fires. This is necessary to avoid the scsi_eh failing recovery actions for blocked rports which would lead to offlined SCSI devices.

Return

0 if the fc_rport left the state FC_PORTSTATE_BLOCKED.
FAST_IO_FAIL if the fast_io_fail_tmo fired, this should be passed back to scsi_eh.
int fc_block_scsi_eh(struct scsi_cmnd * cmnd)

Block SCSI eh thread for blocked fc_rport

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * cmnd
SCSI command that scsi_eh is trying to recover

Description

This routine can be called from a FC LLD scsi_eh callback. It blocks the scsi_eh thread until the fc_rport leaves the FC_PORTSTATE_BLOCKED, or the fast_io_fail_tmo fires. This is necessary to avoid the scsi_eh failing recovery actions for blocked rports which would lead to offlined SCSI devices.

Return

0 if the fc_rport left the state FC_PORTSTATE_BLOCKED.
FAST_IO_FAIL if the fast_io_fail_tmo fired, this should be passed back to scsi_eh.
struct fc_vport * fc_vport_create(struct Scsi_Host * shost, int channel, struct fc_vport_identifiers * ids)

Admin App or LLDD requests creation of a vport

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
scsi host the virtual port is connected to.
int channel
channel on shost port connected to.
struct fc_vport_identifiers * ids
The world wide names, FC4 port roles, etc for the virtual port.

Notes

This routine assumes no locks are held on entry.
int fc_vport_terminate(struct fc_vport * vport)

Admin App or LLDD requests termination of a vport

Parameters

struct fc_vport * vport
fc_vport to be terminated

Description

Calls the LLDD vport_delete() function, then deallocates and removes the vport from the shost and object tree.

Notes

This routine assumes no locks are held on entry.

iSCSI transport class

The file drivers/scsi/scsi_transport_iscsi.c defines transport attributes for the iSCSI class, which sends SCSI packets over TCP/IP connections.

struct iscsi_bus_flash_session * iscsi_create_flashnode_sess(struct Scsi_Host * shost, int index, struct iscsi_transport * transport, int dd_size)

Add flashnode session entry in sysfs

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
pointer to host data
int index
index of flashnode to add in sysfs
struct iscsi_transport * transport
pointer to transport data
int dd_size
total size to allocate

Description

Adds a sysfs entry for the flashnode session attributes

Return

pointer to allocated flashnode sess on success NULL on failure
struct iscsi_bus_flash_conn * iscsi_create_flashnode_conn(struct Scsi_Host * shost, struct iscsi_bus_flash_session * fnode_sess, struct iscsi_transport * transport, int dd_size)

Add flashnode conn entry in sysfs

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
pointer to host data
struct iscsi_bus_flash_session * fnode_sess
pointer to the parent flashnode session entry
struct iscsi_transport * transport
pointer to transport data
int dd_size
total size to allocate

Description

Adds a sysfs entry for the flashnode connection attributes

Return

pointer to allocated flashnode conn on success NULL on failure
struct device * iscsi_find_flashnode_sess(struct Scsi_Host * shost, void * data, int (*fn) (struct device *dev, void *data)

finds flashnode session entry

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
pointer to host data
void * data
pointer to data containing value to use for comparison
int (*)(struct device *dev, void *data) fn
function pointer that does actual comparison

Description

Finds the flashnode session object comparing the data passed using logic defined in passed function pointer

Return

pointer to found flashnode session device object on success NULL on failure
struct device * iscsi_find_flashnode_conn(struct iscsi_bus_flash_session * fnode_sess)

finds flashnode connection entry

Parameters

struct iscsi_bus_flash_session * fnode_sess
pointer to parent flashnode session entry

Description

Finds the flashnode connection object comparing the data passed using logic defined in passed function pointer

Return

pointer to found flashnode connection device object on success NULL on failure
void iscsi_destroy_flashnode_sess(struct iscsi_bus_flash_session * fnode_sess)

destroy flashnode session entry

Parameters

struct iscsi_bus_flash_session * fnode_sess
pointer to flashnode session entry to be destroyed

Description

Deletes the flashnode session entry and all children flashnode connection entries from sysfs

void iscsi_destroy_all_flashnode(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

destroy all flashnode session entries

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
pointer to host data

Description

Destroys all the flashnode session entries and all corresponding children flashnode connection entries from sysfs

int iscsi_scan_finished(struct Scsi_Host * shost, unsigned long time)

helper to report when running scans are done

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
scsi host
unsigned long time
scan run time

Description

This function can be used by drives like qla4xxx to report to the scsi layer when the scans it kicked off at module load time are done.

int iscsi_block_scsi_eh(struct scsi_cmnd * cmd)

block scsi eh until session state has transistioned

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
scsi cmd passed to scsi eh handler

Description

If the session is down this function will wait for the recovery timer to fire or for the session to be logged back in. If the recovery timer fires then FAST_IO_FAIL is returned. The caller should pass this error value to the scsi eh.

void iscsi_unblock_session(struct iscsi_cls_session * session)

set a session as logged in and start IO.

Parameters

struct iscsi_cls_session * session
iscsi session

Description

Mark a session as ready to accept IO.

struct iscsi_cls_session * iscsi_create_session(struct Scsi_Host * shost, struct iscsi_transport * transport, int dd_size, unsigned int target_id)

create iscsi class session

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
scsi host
struct iscsi_transport * transport
iscsi transport
int dd_size
private driver data size
unsigned int target_id
which target

Description

This can be called from a LLD or iscsi_transport.

struct iscsi_cls_conn * iscsi_create_conn(struct iscsi_cls_session * session, int dd_size, uint32_t cid)

create iscsi class connection

Parameters

struct iscsi_cls_session * session
iscsi cls session
int dd_size
private driver data size
uint32_t cid
connection id

Description

This can be called from a LLD or iscsi_transport. The connection is child of the session so cid must be unique for all connections on the session.

Since we do not support MCS, cid will normally be zero. In some cases for software iscsi we could be trying to preallocate a connection struct in which case there could be two connection structs and cid would be non-zero.

int iscsi_destroy_conn(struct iscsi_cls_conn * conn)

destroy iscsi class connection

Parameters

struct iscsi_cls_conn * conn
iscsi cls session

Description

This can be called from a LLD or iscsi_transport.

int iscsi_session_event(struct iscsi_cls_session * session, enum iscsi_uevent_e event)

send session destr. completion event

Parameters

struct iscsi_cls_session * session
iscsi class session
enum iscsi_uevent_e event
type of event

Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) transport class

The file drivers/scsi/scsi_transport_sas.c defines transport attributes for Serial Attached SCSI, a variant of SATA aimed at large high-end systems.

The SAS transport class contains common code to deal with SAS HBAs, an aproximated representation of SAS topologies in the driver model, and various sysfs attributes to expose these topologies and management interfaces to userspace.

In addition to the basic SCSI core objects this transport class introduces two additional intermediate objects: The SAS PHY as represented by struct sas_phy defines an "outgoing" PHY on a SAS HBA or Expander, and the SAS remote PHY represented by struct sas_rphy defines an "incoming" PHY on a SAS Expander or end device. Note that this is purely a software concept, the underlying hardware for a PHY and a remote PHY is the exactly the same.

There is no concept of a SAS port in this code, users can see what PHYs form a wide port based on the port_identifier attribute, which is the same for all PHYs in a port.

void sas_remove_children(struct device * dev)

tear down a devices SAS data structures

Parameters

struct device * dev
device belonging to the sas object

Description

Removes all SAS PHYs and remote PHYs for a given object

void sas_remove_host(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

tear down a Scsi_Host's SAS data structures

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
Scsi Host that is torn down

Description

Removes all SAS PHYs and remote PHYs for a given Scsi_Host and remove the Scsi_Host as well.

Note

Do not call scsi_remove_host() on the Scsi_Host any more, as it is already removed.

u64 sas_get_address(struct scsi_device * sdev)

return the SAS address of the device

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device

Description

Returns the SAS address of the scsi device

unsigned int sas_tlr_supported(struct scsi_device * sdev)

checking TLR bit in vpd 0x90

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device struct

Description

Check Transport Layer Retries are supported or not. If vpd page 0x90 is present, TRL is supported.

void sas_disable_tlr(struct scsi_device * sdev)

setting TLR flags

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device struct

Description

Seting tlr_enabled flag to 0.

void sas_enable_tlr(struct scsi_device * sdev)

setting TLR flags

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
scsi device struct

Description

Seting tlr_enabled flag 1.

struct sas_phy * sas_phy_alloc(struct device * parent, int number)

allocates and initialize a SAS PHY structure

Parameters

struct device * parent
Parent device
int number
Phy index

Description

Allocates an SAS PHY structure. It will be added in the device tree below the device specified by parent, which has to be either a Scsi_Host or sas_rphy.

Return

SAS PHY allocated or NULL if the allocation failed.
int sas_phy_add(struct sas_phy * phy)

add a SAS PHY to the device hierarchy

Parameters

struct sas_phy * phy
The PHY to be added

Description

Publishes a SAS PHY to the rest of the system.

void sas_phy_free(struct sas_phy * phy)

free a SAS PHY

Parameters

struct sas_phy * phy
SAS PHY to free

Description

Frees the specified SAS PHY.

Note

This function must only be called on a PHY that has not successfully been added using sas_phy_add().
void sas_phy_delete(struct sas_phy * phy)

remove SAS PHY

Parameters

struct sas_phy * phy
SAS PHY to remove

Description

Removes the specified SAS PHY. If the SAS PHY has an associated remote PHY it is removed before.

int scsi_is_sas_phy(const struct device * dev)

check if a struct device represents a SAS PHY

Parameters

const struct device * dev
device to check

Return

1 if the device represents a SAS PHY, 0 else
int sas_port_add(struct sas_port * port)

add a SAS port to the device hierarchy

Parameters

struct sas_port * port
port to be added

Description

publishes a port to the rest of the system

void sas_port_free(struct sas_port * port)

free a SAS PORT

Parameters

struct sas_port * port
SAS PORT to free

Description

Frees the specified SAS PORT.

Note

This function must only be called on a PORT that has not successfully been added using sas_port_add().
void sas_port_delete(struct sas_port * port)

remove SAS PORT

Parameters

struct sas_port * port
SAS PORT to remove

Description

Removes the specified SAS PORT. If the SAS PORT has an associated phys, unlink them from the port as well.

int scsi_is_sas_port(const struct device * dev)

check if a struct device represents a SAS port

Parameters

const struct device * dev
device to check

Return

1 if the device represents a SAS Port, 0 else
struct sas_phy * sas_port_get_phy(struct sas_port * port)

try to take a reference on a port member

Parameters

struct sas_port * port
port to check
void sas_port_add_phy(struct sas_port * port, struct sas_phy * phy)

add another phy to a port to form a wide port

Parameters

struct sas_port * port
port to add the phy to
struct sas_phy * phy
phy to add

Description

When a port is initially created, it is empty (has no phys). All ports must have at least one phy to operated, and all wide ports must have at least two. The current code makes no difference between ports and wide ports, but the only object that can be connected to a remote device is a port, so ports must be formed on all devices with phys if they're connected to anything.

void sas_port_delete_phy(struct sas_port * port, struct sas_phy * phy)

remove a phy from a port or wide port

Parameters

struct sas_port * port
port to remove the phy from
struct sas_phy * phy
phy to remove

Description

This operation is used for tearing down ports again. It must be done to every port or wide port before calling sas_port_delete.

struct sas_rphy * sas_end_device_alloc(struct sas_port * parent)

allocate an rphy for an end device

Parameters

struct sas_port * parent
which port

Description

Allocates an SAS remote PHY structure, connected to parent.

Return

SAS PHY allocated or NULL if the allocation failed.
struct sas_rphy * sas_expander_alloc(struct sas_port * parent, enum sas_device_type type)

allocate an rphy for an end device

Parameters

struct sas_port * parent
which port
enum sas_device_type type
SAS_EDGE_EXPANDER_DEVICE or SAS_FANOUT_EXPANDER_DEVICE

Description

Allocates an SAS remote PHY structure, connected to parent.

Return

SAS PHY allocated or NULL if the allocation failed.
int sas_rphy_add(struct sas_rphy * rphy)

add a SAS remote PHY to the device hierarchy

Parameters

struct sas_rphy * rphy
The remote PHY to be added

Description

Publishes a SAS remote PHY to the rest of the system.

void sas_rphy_free(struct sas_rphy * rphy)

free a SAS remote PHY

Parameters

struct sas_rphy * rphy
SAS remote PHY to free

Description

Frees the specified SAS remote PHY.

Note

This function must only be called on a remote PHY that has not successfully been added using sas_rphy_add() (or has been sas_rphy_remove()'d)
void sas_rphy_delete(struct sas_rphy * rphy)

remove and free SAS remote PHY

Parameters

struct sas_rphy * rphy
SAS remote PHY to remove and free

Description

Removes the specified SAS remote PHY and frees it.

unlink SAS remote PHY

Parameters

struct sas_rphy * rphy
SAS remote phy to unlink from its parent port

Description

Removes port reference to an rphy

void sas_rphy_remove(struct sas_rphy * rphy)

remove SAS remote PHY

Parameters

struct sas_rphy * rphy
SAS remote phy to remove

Description

Removes the specified SAS remote PHY.

int scsi_is_sas_rphy(const struct device * dev)

check if a struct device represents a SAS remote PHY

Parameters

const struct device * dev
device to check

Return

1 if the device represents a SAS remote PHY, 0 else
struct scsi_transport_template * sas_attach_transport(struct sas_function_template * ft)

instantiate SAS transport template

Parameters

struct sas_function_template * ft
SAS transport class function template
void sas_release_transport(struct scsi_transport_template * t)

release SAS transport template instance

Parameters

struct scsi_transport_template * t
transport template instance

SATA transport class

The SATA transport is handled by libata, which has its own book of documentation in this directory.

Parallel SCSI (SPI) transport class

The file drivers/scsi/scsi_transport_spi.c defines transport attributes for traditional (fast/wide/ultra) SCSI busses.

void spi_schedule_dv_device(struct scsi_device * sdev)

schedule domain validation to occur on the device

Parameters

struct scsi_device * sdev
The device to validate

Description

Identical to spi_dv_device() above, except that the DV will be scheduled to occur in a workqueue later. All memory allocations are atomic, so may be called from any context including those holding SCSI locks.
void spi_display_xfer_agreement(struct scsi_target * starget)

Print the current target transfer agreement

Parameters

struct scsi_target * starget
The target for which to display the agreement

Description

Each SPI port is required to maintain a transfer agreement for each other port on the bus. This function prints a one-line summary of the current agreement; more detailed information is available in sysfs.

int spi_populate_tag_msg(unsigned char * msg, struct scsi_cmnd * cmd)

place a tag message in a buffer

Parameters

unsigned char * msg
pointer to the area to place the tag
struct scsi_cmnd * cmd
pointer to the scsi command for the tag

Notes

designed to create the correct type of tag message for the particular request. Returns the size of the tag message. May return 0 if TCQ is disabled for this device.

SCSI RDMA (SRP) transport class

The file drivers/scsi/scsi_transport_srp.c defines transport attributes for SCSI over Remote Direct Memory Access.

int srp_tmo_valid(int reconnect_delay, int fast_io_fail_tmo, long dev_loss_tmo)

check timeout combination validity

Parameters

int reconnect_delay
Reconnect delay in seconds.
int fast_io_fail_tmo
Fast I/O fail timeout in seconds.
long dev_loss_tmo
Device loss timeout in seconds.

Description

The combination of the timeout parameters must be such that SCSI commands are finished in a reasonable time. Hence do not allow the fast I/O fail timeout to exceed SCSI_DEVICE_BLOCK_MAX_TIMEOUT nor allow dev_loss_tmo to exceed that limit if failing I/O fast has been disabled. Furthermore, these parameters must be such that multipath can detect failed paths timely. Hence do not allow all three parameters to be disabled simultaneously.

void srp_start_tl_fail_timers(struct srp_rport * rport)

start the transport layer failure timers

Parameters

struct srp_rport * rport
SRP target port.

Description

Start the transport layer fast I/O failure and device loss timers. Do not modify a timer that was already started.

int srp_reconnect_rport(struct srp_rport * rport)

reconnect to an SRP target port

Parameters

struct srp_rport * rport
SRP target port.

Description

Blocks SCSI command queueing before invoking reconnect() such that queuecommand() won't be invoked concurrently with reconnect() from outside the SCSI EH. This is important since a reconnect() implementation may reallocate resources needed by queuecommand().

Notes

  • This function neither waits until outstanding requests have finished nor tries to abort these. It is the responsibility of the reconnect() function to finish outstanding commands before reconnecting to the target port.
  • It is the responsibility of the caller to ensure that the resources reallocated by the reconnect() function won't be used while this function is in progress. One possible strategy is to invoke this function from the context of the SCSI EH thread only. Another possible strategy is to lock the rport mutex inside each SCSI LLD callback that can be invoked by the SCSI EH (the scsi_host_template.eh_*() functions and also the scsi_host_template.:c:func:queuecommand() function).
enum blk_eh_timer_return srp_timed_out(struct scsi_cmnd * scmd)

SRP transport intercept of the SCSI timeout EH

Parameters

struct scsi_cmnd * scmd
SCSI command.

Description

If a timeout occurs while an rport is in the blocked state, ask the SCSI EH to continue waiting (BLK_EH_RESET_TIMER). Otherwise let the SCSI core handle the timeout (BLK_EH_DONE).

Note

This function is called from soft-IRQ context and with the request queue lock held.

void srp_rport_get(struct srp_rport * rport)

increment rport reference count

Parameters

struct srp_rport * rport
SRP target port.
void srp_rport_put(struct srp_rport * rport)

decrement rport reference count

Parameters

struct srp_rport * rport
SRP target port.
struct srp_rport * srp_rport_add(struct Scsi_Host * shost, struct srp_rport_identifiers * ids)

add a SRP remote port to the device hierarchy

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
scsi host the remote port is connected to.
struct srp_rport_identifiers * ids
The port id for the remote port.

Description

Publishes a port to the rest of the system.

void srp_rport_del(struct srp_rport * rport)

remove a SRP remote port

Parameters

struct srp_rport * rport
SRP remote port to remove

Description

Removes the specified SRP remote port.

void srp_remove_host(struct Scsi_Host * shost)

tear down a Scsi_Host's SRP data structures

Parameters

struct Scsi_Host * shost
Scsi Host that is torn down

Description

Removes all SRP remote ports for a given Scsi_Host. Must be called just before scsi_remove_host for SRP HBAs.

void srp_stop_rport_timers(struct srp_rport * rport)

stop the transport layer recovery timers

Parameters

struct srp_rport * rport
SRP remote port for which to stop the timers.

Description

Must be called after srp_remove_host() and scsi_remove_host(). The caller must hold a reference on the rport (rport->dev) and on the SCSI host (rport->dev.parent).

struct scsi_transport_template * srp_attach_transport(struct srp_function_template * ft)

instantiate SRP transport template

Parameters

struct srp_function_template * ft
SRP transport class function template
void srp_release_transport(struct scsi_transport_template * t)

release SRP transport template instance

Parameters

struct scsi_transport_template * t
transport template instance

SCSI lower layer

Host Bus Adapter transport types

Many modern device controllers use the SCSI command set as a protocol to communicate with their devices through many different types of physical connections.

In SCSI language a bus capable of carrying SCSI commands is called a "transport", and a controller connecting to such a bus is called a "host bus adapter" (HBA).

Debug transport

The file drivers/scsi/scsi_debug.c simulates a host adapter with a variable number of disks (or disk like devices) attached, sharing a common amount of RAM. Does a lot of checking to make sure that we are not getting blocks mixed up, and panics the kernel if anything out of the ordinary is seen.

To be more realistic, the simulated devices have the transport attributes of SAS disks.

For documentation see http://sg.danny.cz/sg/sdebug26.html

todo

Parallel (fast/wide/ultra) SCSI, USB, SATA, SAS, Fibre Channel, FireWire, ATAPI devices, Infiniband, I2O, Parallel ports, netlink...