MTD NAND Driver Programming Interface

Author:Thomas Gleixner

Introduction

The generic NAND driver supports almost all NAND and AG-AND based chips and connects them to the Memory Technology Devices (MTD) subsystem of the Linux Kernel.

This documentation is provided for developers who want to implement board drivers or filesystem drivers suitable for NAND devices.

Known Bugs And Assumptions

None.

Documentation hints

The function and structure docs are autogenerated. Each function and struct member has a short description which is marked with an [XXX] identifier. The following chapters explain the meaning of those identifiers.

Function identifiers [XXX]

The functions are marked with [XXX] identifiers in the short comment. The identifiers explain the usage and scope of the functions. Following identifiers are used:

  • [MTD Interface]

    These functions provide the interface to the MTD kernel API. They are not replaceable and provide functionality which is complete hardware independent.

  • [NAND Interface]

    These functions are exported and provide the interface to the NAND kernel API.

  • [GENERIC]

    Generic functions are not replaceable and provide functionality which is complete hardware independent.

  • [DEFAULT]

    Default functions provide hardware related functionality which is suitable for most of the implementations. These functions can be replaced by the board driver if necessary. Those functions are called via pointers in the NAND chip description structure. The board driver can set the functions which should be replaced by board dependent functions before calling nand_scan(). If the function pointer is NULL on entry to nand_scan() then the pointer is set to the default function which is suitable for the detected chip type.

Struct member identifiers [XXX]

The struct members are marked with [XXX] identifiers in the comment. The identifiers explain the usage and scope of the members. Following identifiers are used:

  • [INTERN]

    These members are for NAND driver internal use only and must not be modified. Most of these values are calculated from the chip geometry information which is evaluated during nand_scan().

  • [REPLACEABLE]

    Replaceable members hold hardware related functions which can be provided by the board driver. The board driver can set the functions which should be replaced by board dependent functions before calling nand_scan(). If the function pointer is NULL on entry to nand_scan() then the pointer is set to the default function which is suitable for the detected chip type.

  • [BOARDSPECIFIC]

    Board specific members hold hardware related information which must be provided by the board driver. The board driver must set the function pointers and datafields before calling nand_scan().

  • [OPTIONAL]

    Optional members can hold information relevant for the board driver. The generic NAND driver code does not use this information.

Basic board driver

For most boards it will be sufficient to provide just the basic functions and fill out some really board dependent members in the nand chip description structure.

Basic defines

At least you have to provide a nand_chip structure and a storage for the ioremap'ed chip address. You can allocate the nand_chip structure using kmalloc or you can allocate it statically. The NAND chip structure embeds an mtd structure which will be registered to the MTD subsystem. You can extract a pointer to the mtd structure from a nand_chip pointer using the nand_to_mtd() helper.

Kmalloc based example

static struct mtd_info *board_mtd;
static void __iomem *baseaddr;

Static example

static struct nand_chip board_chip;
static void __iomem *baseaddr;

Partition defines

If you want to divide your device into partitions, then define a partitioning scheme suitable to your board.

#define NUM_PARTITIONS 2
static struct mtd_partition partition_info[] = {
    { .name = "Flash partition 1",
      .offset =  0,
      .size =    8 * 1024 * 1024 },
    { .name = "Flash partition 2",
      .offset =  MTDPART_OFS_NEXT,
      .size =    MTDPART_SIZ_FULL },
};

Hardware control function

The hardware control function provides access to the control pins of the NAND chip(s). The access can be done by GPIO pins or by address lines. If you use address lines, make sure that the timing requirements are met.

GPIO based example

static void board_hwcontrol(struct mtd_info *mtd, int cmd)
{
    switch(cmd){
        case NAND_CTL_SETCLE: /* Set CLE pin high */ break;
        case NAND_CTL_CLRCLE: /* Set CLE pin low */ break;
        case NAND_CTL_SETALE: /* Set ALE pin high */ break;
        case NAND_CTL_CLRALE: /* Set ALE pin low */ break;
        case NAND_CTL_SETNCE: /* Set nCE pin low */ break;
        case NAND_CTL_CLRNCE: /* Set nCE pin high */ break;
    }
}

Address lines based example. It's assumed that the nCE pin is driven by a chip select decoder.

static void board_hwcontrol(struct mtd_info *mtd, int cmd)
{
    struct nand_chip *this = mtd_to_nand(mtd);
    switch(cmd){
        case NAND_CTL_SETCLE: this->legacy.IO_ADDR_W |= CLE_ADRR_BIT;  break;
        case NAND_CTL_CLRCLE: this->legacy.IO_ADDR_W &= ~CLE_ADRR_BIT; break;
        case NAND_CTL_SETALE: this->legacy.IO_ADDR_W |= ALE_ADRR_BIT;  break;
        case NAND_CTL_CLRALE: this->legacy.IO_ADDR_W &= ~ALE_ADRR_BIT; break;
    }
}

Device ready function

If the hardware interface has the ready busy pin of the NAND chip connected to a GPIO or other accessible I/O pin, this function is used to read back the state of the pin. The function has no arguments and should return 0, if the device is busy (R/B pin is low) and 1, if the device is ready (R/B pin is high). If the hardware interface does not give access to the ready busy pin, then the function must not be defined and the function pointer this->legacy.dev_ready is set to NULL.

Init function

The init function allocates memory and sets up all the board specific parameters and function pointers. When everything is set up nand_scan() is called. This function tries to detect and identify then chip. If a chip is found all the internal data fields are initialized accordingly. The structure(s) have to be zeroed out first and then filled with the necessary information about the device.

static int __init board_init (void)
{
    struct nand_chip *this;
    int err = 0;

    /* Allocate memory for MTD device structure and private data */
    this = kzalloc(sizeof(struct nand_chip), GFP_KERNEL);
    if (!this) {
        printk ("Unable to allocate NAND MTD device structure.\n");
        err = -ENOMEM;
        goto out;
    }

    board_mtd = nand_to_mtd(this);

    /* map physical address */
    baseaddr = ioremap(CHIP_PHYSICAL_ADDRESS, 1024);
    if (!baseaddr) {
        printk("Ioremap to access NAND chip failed\n");
        err = -EIO;
        goto out_mtd;
    }

    /* Set address of NAND IO lines */
    this->legacy.IO_ADDR_R = baseaddr;
    this->legacy.IO_ADDR_W = baseaddr;
    /* Reference hardware control function */
    this->hwcontrol = board_hwcontrol;
    /* Set command delay time, see datasheet for correct value */
    this->legacy.chip_delay = CHIP_DEPENDEND_COMMAND_DELAY;
    /* Assign the device ready function, if available */
    this->legacy.dev_ready = board_dev_ready;
    this->eccmode = NAND_ECC_SOFT;

    /* Scan to find existence of the device */
    if (nand_scan (this, 1)) {
        err = -ENXIO;
        goto out_ior;
    }

    add_mtd_partitions(board_mtd, partition_info, NUM_PARTITIONS);
    goto out;

out_ior:
    iounmap(baseaddr);
out_mtd:
    kfree (this);
out:
    return err;
}
module_init(board_init);

Exit function

The exit function is only necessary if the driver is compiled as a module. It releases all resources which are held by the chip driver and unregisters the partitions in the MTD layer.

#ifdef MODULE
static void __exit board_cleanup (void)
{
    /* Release resources, unregister device */
    nand_release (mtd_to_nand(board_mtd));

    /* unmap physical address */
    iounmap(baseaddr);

    /* Free the MTD device structure */
    kfree (mtd_to_nand(board_mtd));
}
module_exit(board_cleanup);
#endif

Advanced board driver functions

This chapter describes the advanced functionality of the NAND driver. For a list of functions which can be overridden by the board driver see the documentation of the nand_chip structure.

Multiple chip control

The nand driver can control chip arrays. Therefore the board driver must provide an own select_chip function. This function must (de)select the requested chip. The function pointer in the nand_chip structure must be set before calling nand_scan(). The maxchip parameter of nand_scan() defines the maximum number of chips to scan for. Make sure that the select_chip function can handle the requested number of chips.

The nand driver concatenates the chips to one virtual chip and provides this virtual chip to the MTD layer.

Note: The driver can only handle linear chip arrays of equally sized chips. There is no support for parallel arrays which extend the buswidth.

GPIO based example

static void board_select_chip (struct mtd_info *mtd, int chip)
{
    /* Deselect all chips, set all nCE pins high */
    GPIO(BOARD_NAND_NCE) |= 0xff;
    if (chip >= 0)
        GPIO(BOARD_NAND_NCE) &= ~ (1 << chip);
}

Address lines based example. Its assumed that the nCE pins are connected to an address decoder.

static void board_select_chip (struct mtd_info *mtd, int chip)
{
    struct nand_chip *this = mtd_to_nand(mtd);

    /* Deselect all chips */
    this->legacy.IO_ADDR_R &= ~BOARD_NAND_ADDR_MASK;
    this->legacy.IO_ADDR_W &= ~BOARD_NAND_ADDR_MASK;
    switch (chip) {
    case 0:
        this->legacy.IO_ADDR_R |= BOARD_NAND_ADDR_CHIP0;
        this->legacy.IO_ADDR_W |= BOARD_NAND_ADDR_CHIP0;
        break;
    ....
    case n:
        this->legacy.IO_ADDR_R |= BOARD_NAND_ADDR_CHIPn;
        this->legacy.IO_ADDR_W |= BOARD_NAND_ADDR_CHIPn;
        break;
    }
}

Hardware ECC support

Functions and constants

The nand driver supports three different types of hardware ECC.

  • NAND_ECC_HW3_256

    Hardware ECC generator providing 3 bytes ECC per 256 byte.

  • NAND_ECC_HW3_512

    Hardware ECC generator providing 3 bytes ECC per 512 byte.

  • NAND_ECC_HW6_512

    Hardware ECC generator providing 6 bytes ECC per 512 byte.

  • NAND_ECC_HW8_512

    Hardware ECC generator providing 8 bytes ECC per 512 byte.

If your hardware generator has a different functionality add it at the appropriate place in nand_base.c

The board driver must provide following functions:

  • enable_hwecc

    This function is called before reading / writing to the chip. Reset or initialize the hardware generator in this function. The function is called with an argument which let you distinguish between read and write operations.

  • calculate_ecc

    This function is called after read / write from / to the chip. Transfer the ECC from the hardware to the buffer. If the option NAND_HWECC_SYNDROME is set then the function is only called on write. See below.

  • correct_data

    In case of an ECC error this function is called for error detection and correction. Return 1 respectively 2 in case the error can be corrected. If the error is not correctable return -1. If your hardware generator matches the default algorithm of the nand_ecc software generator then use the correction function provided by nand_ecc instead of implementing duplicated code.

Hardware ECC with syndrome calculation

Many hardware ECC implementations provide Reed-Solomon codes and calculate an error syndrome on read. The syndrome must be converted to a standard Reed-Solomon syndrome before calling the error correction code in the generic Reed-Solomon library.

The ECC bytes must be placed immediately after the data bytes in order to make the syndrome generator work. This is contrary to the usual layout used by software ECC. The separation of data and out of band area is not longer possible. The nand driver code handles this layout and the remaining free bytes in the oob area are managed by the autoplacement code. Provide a matching oob-layout in this case. See rts_from4.c and diskonchip.c for implementation reference. In those cases we must also use bad block tables on FLASH, because the ECC layout is interfering with the bad block marker positions. See bad block table support for details.

Bad block table support

Most NAND chips mark the bad blocks at a defined position in the spare area. Those blocks must not be erased under any circumstances as the bad block information would be lost. It is possible to check the bad block mark each time when the blocks are accessed by reading the spare area of the first page in the block. This is time consuming so a bad block table is used.

The nand driver supports various types of bad block tables.

  • Per device

    The bad block table contains all bad block information of the device which can consist of multiple chips.

  • Per chip

    A bad block table is used per chip and contains the bad block information for this particular chip.

  • Fixed offset

    The bad block table is located at a fixed offset in the chip (device). This applies to various DiskOnChip devices.

  • Automatic placed

    The bad block table is automatically placed and detected either at the end or at the beginning of a chip (device)

  • Mirrored tables

    The bad block table is mirrored on the chip (device) to allow updates of the bad block table without data loss.

nand_scan() calls the function nand_default_bbt(). nand_default_bbt() selects appropriate default bad block table descriptors depending on the chip information which was retrieved by nand_scan().

The standard policy is scanning the device for bad blocks and build a ram based bad block table which allows faster access than always checking the bad block information on the flash chip itself.

Flash based tables

It may be desired or necessary to keep a bad block table in FLASH. For AG-AND chips this is mandatory, as they have no factory marked bad blocks. They have factory marked good blocks. The marker pattern is erased when the block is erased to be reused. So in case of powerloss before writing the pattern back to the chip this block would be lost and added to the bad blocks. Therefore we scan the chip(s) when we detect them the first time for good blocks and store this information in a bad block table before erasing any of the blocks.

The blocks in which the tables are stored are protected against accidental access by marking them bad in the memory bad block table. The bad block table management functions are allowed to circumvent this protection.

The simplest way to activate the FLASH based bad block table support is to set the option NAND_BBT_USE_FLASH in the bbt_option field of the nand chip structure before calling nand_scan(). For AG-AND chips is this done by default. This activates the default FLASH based bad block table functionality of the NAND driver. The default bad block table options are

  • Store bad block table per chip
  • Use 2 bits per block
  • Automatic placement at the end of the chip
  • Use mirrored tables with version numbers
  • Reserve 4 blocks at the end of the chip

User defined tables

User defined tables are created by filling out a nand_bbt_descr structure and storing the pointer in the nand_chip structure member bbt_td before calling nand_scan(). If a mirror table is necessary a second structure must be created and a pointer to this structure must be stored in bbt_md inside the nand_chip structure. If the bbt_md member is set to NULL then only the main table is used and no scan for the mirrored table is performed.

The most important field in the nand_bbt_descr structure is the options field. The options define most of the table properties. Use the predefined constants from rawnand.h to define the options.

  • Number of bits per block

    The supported number of bits is 1, 2, 4, 8.

  • Table per chip

    Setting the constant NAND_BBT_PERCHIP selects that a bad block table is managed for each chip in a chip array. If this option is not set then a per device bad block table is used.

  • Table location is absolute

    Use the option constant NAND_BBT_ABSPAGE and define the absolute page number where the bad block table starts in the field pages. If you have selected bad block tables per chip and you have a multi chip array then the start page must be given for each chip in the chip array. Note: there is no scan for a table ident pattern performed, so the fields pattern, veroffs, offs, len can be left uninitialized

  • Table location is automatically detected

    The table can either be located in the first or the last good blocks of the chip (device). Set NAND_BBT_LASTBLOCK to place the bad block table at the end of the chip (device). The bad block tables are marked and identified by a pattern which is stored in the spare area of the first page in the block which holds the bad block table. Store a pointer to the pattern in the pattern field. Further the length of the pattern has to be stored in len and the offset in the spare area must be given in the offs member of the nand_bbt_descr structure. For mirrored bad block tables different patterns are mandatory.

  • Table creation

    Set the option NAND_BBT_CREATE to enable the table creation if no table can be found during the scan. Usually this is done only once if a new chip is found.

  • Table write support

    Set the option NAND_BBT_WRITE to enable the table write support. This allows the update of the bad block table(s) in case a block has to be marked bad due to wear. The MTD interface function block_markbad is calling the update function of the bad block table. If the write support is enabled then the table is updated on FLASH.

    Note: Write support should only be enabled for mirrored tables with version control.

  • Table version control

    Set the option NAND_BBT_VERSION to enable the table version control. It's highly recommended to enable this for mirrored tables with write support. It makes sure that the risk of losing the bad block table information is reduced to the loss of the information about the one worn out block which should be marked bad. The version is stored in 4 consecutive bytes in the spare area of the device. The position of the version number is defined by the member veroffs in the bad block table descriptor.

  • Save block contents on write

    In case that the block which holds the bad block table does contain other useful information, set the option NAND_BBT_SAVECONTENT. When the bad block table is written then the whole block is read the bad block table is updated and the block is erased and everything is written back. If this option is not set only the bad block table is written and everything else in the block is ignored and erased.

  • Number of reserved blocks

    For automatic placement some blocks must be reserved for bad block table storage. The number of reserved blocks is defined in the maxblocks member of the bad block table description structure. Reserving 4 blocks for mirrored tables should be a reasonable number. This also limits the number of blocks which are scanned for the bad block table ident pattern.

Spare area (auto)placement

The nand driver implements different possibilities for placement of filesystem data in the spare area,

  • Placement defined by fs driver
  • Automatic placement

The default placement function is automatic placement. The nand driver has built in default placement schemes for the various chiptypes. If due to hardware ECC functionality the default placement does not fit then the board driver can provide a own placement scheme.

File system drivers can provide a own placement scheme which is used instead of the default placement scheme.

Placement schemes are defined by a nand_oobinfo structure

struct nand_oobinfo {
    int useecc;
    int eccbytes;
    int eccpos[24];
    int oobfree[8][2];
};
  • useecc

    The useecc member controls the ecc and placement function. The header file include/mtd/mtd-abi.h contains constants to select ecc and placement. MTD_NANDECC_OFF switches off the ecc complete. This is not recommended and available for testing and diagnosis only. MTD_NANDECC_PLACE selects caller defined placement, MTD_NANDECC_AUTOPLACE selects automatic placement.

  • eccbytes

    The eccbytes member defines the number of ecc bytes per page.

  • eccpos

    The eccpos array holds the byte offsets in the spare area where the ecc codes are placed.

  • oobfree

    The oobfree array defines the areas in the spare area which can be used for automatic placement. The information is given in the format {offset, size}. offset defines the start of the usable area, size the length in bytes. More than one area can be defined. The list is terminated by an {0, 0} entry.

Placement defined by fs driver

The calling function provides a pointer to a nand_oobinfo structure which defines the ecc placement. For writes the caller must provide a spare area buffer along with the data buffer. The spare area buffer size is (number of pages) * (size of spare area). For reads the buffer size is (number of pages) * ((size of spare area) + (number of ecc steps per page) * sizeof (int)). The driver stores the result of the ecc check for each tuple in the spare buffer. The storage sequence is:

<spare data page 0><ecc result 0>...<ecc result n>

...

<spare data page n><ecc result 0>...<ecc result n>

This is a legacy mode used by YAFFS1.

If the spare area buffer is NULL then only the ECC placement is done according to the given scheme in the nand_oobinfo structure.

Automatic placement

Automatic placement uses the built in defaults to place the ecc bytes in the spare area. If filesystem data have to be stored / read into the spare area then the calling function must provide a buffer. The buffer size per page is determined by the oobfree array in the nand_oobinfo structure.

If the spare area buffer is NULL then only the ECC placement is done according to the default builtin scheme.

Spare area autoplacement default schemes

256 byte pagesize

Offset Content Comment
0x00 ECC byte 0 Error correction code byte 0
0x01 ECC byte 1 Error correction code byte 1
0x02 ECC byte 2 Error correction code byte 2
0x03 Autoplace 0  
0x04 Autoplace 1  
0x05 Bad block marker If any bit in this byte is zero, then this block is bad. This applies only to the first page in a block. In the remaining pages this byte is reserved
0x06 Autoplace 2  
0x07 Autoplace 3  

512 byte pagesize

Offset Content Comment
0x00 ECC byte 0 Error correction code byte 0 of the lower 256 Byte data in this page
0x01 ECC byte 1 Error correction code byte 1 of the lower 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x02 ECC byte 2 Error correction code byte 2 of the lower 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x03 ECC byte 3 Error correction code byte 0 of the upper 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x04 reserved reserved
0x05 Bad block marker If any bit in this byte is zero, then this block is bad. This applies only to the first page in a block. In the remaining pages this byte is reserved
0x06 ECC byte 4 Error correction code byte 1 of the upper 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x07 ECC byte 5 Error correction code byte 2 of the upper 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x08 - 0x0F Autoplace 0 - 7  

2048 byte pagesize

Offset Content Comment
0x00 Bad block marker If any bit in this byte is zero, then this block is bad. This applies only to the first page in a block. In the remaining pages this byte is reserved
0x01 Reserved Reserved
0x02-0x27 Autoplace 0 - 37  
0x28 ECC byte 0 Error correction code byte 0 of the first 256 Byte data in this page
0x29 ECC byte 1 Error correction code byte 1 of the first 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x2A ECC byte 2 Error correction code byte 2 of the first 256 Bytes data in this page
0x2B ECC byte 3 Error correction code byte 0 of the second 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x2C ECC byte 4 Error correction code byte 1 of the second 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x2D ECC byte 5 Error correction code byte 2 of the second 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x2E ECC byte 6 Error correction code byte 0 of the third 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x2F ECC byte 7 Error correction code byte 1 of the third 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x30 ECC byte 8 Error correction code byte 2 of the third 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x31 ECC byte 9 Error correction code byte 0 of the fourth 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x32 ECC byte 10 Error correction code byte 1 of the fourth 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x33 ECC byte 11 Error correction code byte 2 of the fourth 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x34 ECC byte 12 Error correction code byte 0 of the fifth 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x35 ECC byte 13 Error correction code byte 1 of the fifth 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x36 ECC byte 14 Error correction code byte 2 of the fifth 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x37 ECC byte 15 Error correction code byte 0 of the sixth 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x38 ECC byte 16 Error correction code byte 1 of the sixth 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x39 ECC byte 17 Error correction code byte 2 of the sixth 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x3A ECC byte 18 Error correction code byte 0 of the seventh 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x3B ECC byte 19 Error correction code byte 1 of the seventh 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x3C ECC byte 20 Error correction code byte 2 of the seventh 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x3D ECC byte 21 Error correction code byte 0 of the eighth 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x3E ECC byte 22 Error correction code byte 1 of the eighth 256 Bytes of data in this page
0x3F ECC byte 23 Error correction code byte 2 of the eighth 256 Bytes of data in this page

Filesystem support

The NAND driver provides all necessary functions for a filesystem via the MTD interface.

Filesystems must be aware of the NAND peculiarities and restrictions. One major restrictions of NAND Flash is, that you cannot write as often as you want to a page. The consecutive writes to a page, before erasing it again, are restricted to 1-3 writes, depending on the manufacturers specifications. This applies similar to the spare area.

Therefore NAND aware filesystems must either write in page size chunks or hold a writebuffer to collect smaller writes until they sum up to pagesize. Available NAND aware filesystems: JFFS2, YAFFS.

The spare area usage to store filesystem data is controlled by the spare area placement functionality which is described in one of the earlier chapters.

Tools

The MTD project provides a couple of helpful tools to handle NAND Flash.

  • flasherase, flasheraseall: Erase and format FLASH partitions
  • nandwrite: write filesystem images to NAND FLASH
  • nanddump: dump the contents of a NAND FLASH partitions

These tools are aware of the NAND restrictions. Please use those tools instead of complaining about errors which are caused by non NAND aware access methods.

Constants

This chapter describes the constants which might be relevant for a driver developer.

Chip option constants

Constants for chip id table

These constants are defined in rawnand.h. They are OR-ed together to describe the chip functionality:

/* Buswitdh is 16 bit */
#define NAND_BUSWIDTH_16    0x00000002
/* Device supports partial programming without padding */
#define NAND_NO_PADDING     0x00000004
/* Chip has cache program function */
#define NAND_CACHEPRG       0x00000008
/* Chip has copy back function */
#define NAND_COPYBACK       0x00000010
/* AND Chip which has 4 banks and a confusing page / block
 * assignment. See Renesas datasheet for further information */
#define NAND_IS_AND     0x00000020
/* Chip has a array of 4 pages which can be read without
 * additional ready /busy waits */
#define NAND_4PAGE_ARRAY    0x00000040

Constants for runtime options

These constants are defined in rawnand.h. They are OR-ed together to describe the functionality:

/* The hw ecc generator provides a syndrome instead a ecc value on read
 * This can only work if we have the ecc bytes directly behind the
 * data bytes. Applies for DOC and AG-AND Renesas HW Reed Solomon generators */
#define NAND_HWECC_SYNDROME 0x00020000

ECC selection constants

Use these constants to select the ECC algorithm:

/* No ECC. Usage is not recommended ! */
#define NAND_ECC_NONE       0
/* Software ECC 3 byte ECC per 256 Byte data */
#define NAND_ECC_SOFT       1
/* Hardware ECC 3 byte ECC per 256 Byte data */
#define NAND_ECC_HW3_256    2
/* Hardware ECC 3 byte ECC per 512 Byte data */
#define NAND_ECC_HW3_512    3
/* Hardware ECC 6 byte ECC per 512 Byte data */
#define NAND_ECC_HW6_512    4
/* Hardware ECC 8 byte ECC per 512 Byte data */
#define NAND_ECC_HW8_512    6

Structures

This chapter contains the autogenerated documentation of the structures which are used in the NAND driver and might be relevant for a driver developer. Each struct member has a short description which is marked with an [XXX] identifier. See the chapter "Documentation hints" for an explanation.

struct nand_parameters

NAND generic parameters from the parameter page

Definition

struct nand_parameters {
  const char *model;
  bool supports_set_get_features;
  unsigned long set_feature_list[BITS_TO_LONGS(ONFI_FEATURE_NUMBER)];
  unsigned long get_feature_list[BITS_TO_LONGS(ONFI_FEATURE_NUMBER)];
  struct onfi_params *onfi;
};

Members

model
Model name
supports_set_get_features
The NAND chip supports setting/getting features
set_feature_list
Bitmap of features that can be set
get_feature_list
Bitmap of features that can be get
onfi
ONFI specific parameters
struct nand_id

NAND id structure

Definition

struct nand_id {
  u8 data[NAND_MAX_ID_LEN];
  int len;
};

Members

data
buffer containing the id bytes.
len
ID length.
struct nand_controller_ops

Controller operations

Definition

struct nand_controller_ops {
  int (*attach_chip)(struct nand_chip *chip);
  void (*detach_chip)(struct nand_chip *chip);
};

Members

attach_chip
this method is called after the NAND detection phase after flash ID and MTD fields such as erase size, page size and OOB size have been set up. ECC requirements are available if provided by the NAND chip or device tree. Typically used to choose the appropriate ECC configuration and allocate associated resources. This hook is optional.
detach_chip
free all resources allocated/claimed in nand_controller_ops->:c:func:attach_chip(). This hook is optional.
struct nand_controller

Structure used to describe a NAND controller

Definition

struct nand_controller {
  spinlock_t lock;
  struct nand_chip *active;
  wait_queue_head_t wq;
  const struct nand_controller_ops *ops;
};

Members

lock
protection lock
active
the mtd device which holds the controller currently
wq
wait queue to sleep on if a NAND operation is in progress used instead of the per chip wait queue when a hw controller is available.
ops
NAND controller operations.
struct nand_ecc_step_info

ECC step information of ECC engine

Definition

struct nand_ecc_step_info {
  int stepsize;
  const int *strengths;
  int nstrengths;
};

Members

stepsize
data bytes per ECC step
strengths
array of supported strengths
nstrengths
number of supported strengths
struct nand_ecc_caps

capability of ECC engine

Definition

struct nand_ecc_caps {
  const struct nand_ecc_step_info *stepinfos;
  int nstepinfos;
  int (*calc_ecc_bytes)(int step_size, int strength);
};

Members

stepinfos
array of ECC step information
nstepinfos
number of ECC step information
calc_ecc_bytes
driver's hook to calculate ECC bytes per step
struct nand_ecc_ctrl

Control structure for ECC

Definition

struct nand_ecc_ctrl {
  nand_ecc_modes_t mode;
  enum nand_ecc_algo algo;
  int steps;
  int size;
  int bytes;
  int total;
  int strength;
  int prepad;
  int postpad;
  unsigned int options;
  void *priv;
  u8 *calc_buf;
  u8 *code_buf;
  void (*hwctl)(struct nand_chip *chip, int mode);
  int (*calculate)(struct nand_chip *chip, const uint8_t *dat, uint8_t *ecc_code);
  int (*correct)(struct nand_chip *chip, uint8_t *dat, uint8_t *read_ecc, uint8_t *calc_ecc);
  int (*read_page_raw)(struct nand_chip *chip, uint8_t *buf, int oob_required, int page);
  int (*write_page_raw)(struct nand_chip *chip, const uint8_t *buf, int oob_required, int page);
  int (*read_page)(struct nand_chip *chip, uint8_t *buf, int oob_required, int page);
  int (*read_subpage)(struct nand_chip *chip, uint32_t offs, uint32_t len, uint8_t *buf, int page);
  int (*write_subpage)(struct nand_chip *chip, uint32_t offset,uint32_t data_len, const uint8_t *data_buf, int oob_required, int page);
  int (*write_page)(struct nand_chip *chip, const uint8_t *buf, int oob_required, int page);
  int (*write_oob_raw)(struct nand_chip *chip, int page);
  int (*read_oob_raw)(struct nand_chip *chip, int page);
  int (*read_oob)(struct nand_chip *chip, int page);
  int (*write_oob)(struct nand_chip *chip, int page);
};

Members

mode
ECC mode
algo
ECC algorithm
steps
number of ECC steps per page
size
data bytes per ECC step
bytes
ECC bytes per step
total
total number of ECC bytes per page
strength
max number of correctible bits per ECC step
prepad
padding information for syndrome based ECC generators
postpad
padding information for syndrome based ECC generators
options
ECC specific options (see NAND_ECC_XXX flags defined above)
priv
pointer to private ECC control data
calc_buf
buffer for calculated ECC, size is oobsize.
code_buf
buffer for ECC read from flash, size is oobsize.
hwctl
function to control hardware ECC generator. Must only be provided if an hardware ECC is available
calculate
function for ECC calculation or readback from ECC hardware
correct
function for ECC correction, matching to ECC generator (sw/hw). Should return a positive number representing the number of corrected bitflips, -EBADMSG if the number of bitflips exceed ECC strength, or any other error code if the error is not directly related to correction. If -EBADMSG is returned the input buffers should be left untouched.
read_page_raw
function to read a raw page without ECC. This function should hide the specific layout used by the ECC controller and always return contiguous in-band and out-of-band data even if they're not stored contiguously on the NAND chip (e.g. NAND_ECC_HW_SYNDROME interleaves in-band and out-of-band data).
write_page_raw
function to write a raw page without ECC. This function should hide the specific layout used by the ECC controller and consider the passed data as contiguous in-band and out-of-band data. ECC controller is responsible for doing the appropriate transformations to adapt to its specific layout (e.g. NAND_ECC_HW_SYNDROME interleaves in-band and out-of-band data).
read_page
function to read a page according to the ECC generator requirements; returns maximum number of bitflips corrected in any single ECC step, -EIO hw error
read_subpage
function to read parts of the page covered by ECC; returns same as read_page()
write_subpage
function to write parts of the page covered by ECC.
write_page
function to write a page according to the ECC generator requirements.
write_oob_raw
function to write chip OOB data without ECC
read_oob_raw
function to read chip OOB data without ECC
read_oob
function to read chip OOB data
write_oob
function to write chip OOB data
struct nand_sdr_timings

SDR NAND chip timings

Definition

struct nand_sdr_timings {
  u64 tBERS_max;
  u32 tCCS_min;
  u64 tPROG_max;
  u64 tR_max;
  u32 tALH_min;
  u32 tADL_min;
  u32 tALS_min;
  u32 tAR_min;
  u32 tCEA_max;
  u32 tCEH_min;
  u32 tCH_min;
  u32 tCHZ_max;
  u32 tCLH_min;
  u32 tCLR_min;
  u32 tCLS_min;
  u32 tCOH_min;
  u32 tCS_min;
  u32 tDH_min;
  u32 tDS_min;
  u32 tFEAT_max;
  u32 tIR_min;
  u32 tITC_max;
  u32 tRC_min;
  u32 tREA_max;
  u32 tREH_min;
  u32 tRHOH_min;
  u32 tRHW_min;
  u32 tRHZ_max;
  u32 tRLOH_min;
  u32 tRP_min;
  u32 tRR_min;
  u64 tRST_max;
  u32 tWB_max;
  u32 tWC_min;
  u32 tWH_min;
  u32 tWHR_min;
  u32 tWP_min;
  u32 tWW_min;
};

Members

tBERS_max
Block erase time
tCCS_min
Change column setup time
tPROG_max
Page program time
tR_max
Page read time
tALH_min
ALE hold time
tADL_min
ALE to data loading time
tALS_min
ALE setup time
tAR_min
ALE to RE# delay
tCEA_max
CE# access time
tCEH_min
CE# high hold time
tCH_min
CE# hold time
tCHZ_max
CE# high to output hi-Z
tCLH_min
CLE hold time
tCLR_min
CLE to RE# delay
tCLS_min
CLE setup time
tCOH_min
CE# high to output hold
tCS_min
CE# setup time
tDH_min
Data hold time
tDS_min
Data setup time
tFEAT_max
Busy time for Set Features and Get Features
tIR_min
Output hi-Z to RE# low
tITC_max
Interface and Timing Mode Change time
tRC_min
RE# cycle time
tREA_max
RE# access time
tREH_min
RE# high hold time
tRHOH_min
RE# high to output hold
tRHW_min
RE# high to WE# low
tRHZ_max
RE# high to output hi-Z
tRLOH_min
RE# low to output hold
tRP_min
RE# pulse width
tRR_min
Ready to RE# low (data only)
tRST_max
Device reset time, measured from the falling edge of R/B# to the rising edge of R/B#.
tWB_max
WE# high to SR[6] low
tWC_min
WE# cycle time
tWH_min
WE# high hold time
tWHR_min
WE# high to RE# low
tWP_min
WE# pulse width
tWW_min
WP# transition to WE# low

Description

This struct defines the timing requirements of a SDR NAND chip. These information can be found in every NAND datasheets and the timings meaning are described in the ONFI specifications: www.onfi.org/~/media/ONFI/specs/onfi_3_1_spec.pdf (chapter 4.15 Timing Parameters)

All these timings are expressed in picoseconds.

enum nand_data_interface_type

NAND interface timing type

Constants

NAND_SDR_IFACE
Single Data Rate interface
struct nand_data_interface

NAND interface timing

Definition

struct nand_data_interface {
  enum nand_data_interface_type type;
  union {
    struct nand_sdr_timings sdr;
  } timings;
};

Members

type
type of the timing
timings
The timing, type according to type
timings.sdr
Use it when type is NAND_SDR_IFACE.
const struct nand_sdr_timings * nand_get_sdr_timings(const struct nand_data_interface * conf)

get SDR timing from data interface

Parameters

const struct nand_data_interface * conf
The data interface
struct nand_op_cmd_instr

Definition of a command instruction

Definition

struct nand_op_cmd_instr {
  u8 opcode;
};

Members

opcode
the command to issue in one cycle
struct nand_op_addr_instr

Definition of an address instruction

Definition

struct nand_op_addr_instr {
  unsigned int naddrs;
  const u8 *addrs;
};

Members

naddrs
length of the addrs array
addrs
array containing the address cycles to issue
struct nand_op_data_instr

Definition of a data instruction

Definition

struct nand_op_data_instr {
  unsigned int len;
  union {
    void *in;
    const void *out;
  } buf;
  bool force_8bit;
};

Members

len
number of data bytes to move
buf
buffer to fill
buf.in
buffer to fill when reading from the NAND chip
buf.out
buffer to read from when writing to the NAND chip
force_8bit
force 8-bit access

Description

Please note that "in" and "out" are inverted from the ONFI specification and are from the controller perspective, so a "in" is a read from the NAND chip while a "out" is a write to the NAND chip.

struct nand_op_waitrdy_instr

Definition of a wait ready instruction

Definition

struct nand_op_waitrdy_instr {
  unsigned int timeout_ms;
};

Members

timeout_ms
maximum delay while waiting for the ready/busy pin in ms
enum nand_op_instr_type

Definition of all instruction types

Constants

NAND_OP_CMD_INSTR
command instruction
NAND_OP_ADDR_INSTR
address instruction
NAND_OP_DATA_IN_INSTR
data in instruction
NAND_OP_DATA_OUT_INSTR
data out instruction
NAND_OP_WAITRDY_INSTR
wait ready instruction
struct nand_op_instr

Instruction object

Definition

struct nand_op_instr {
  enum nand_op_instr_type type;
  union {
    struct nand_op_cmd_instr cmd;
    struct nand_op_addr_instr addr;
    struct nand_op_data_instr data;
    struct nand_op_waitrdy_instr waitrdy;
  } ctx;
  unsigned int delay_ns;
};

Members

type
the instruction type
ctx
extra data associated to the instruction. You'll have to use the appropriate element depending on type
ctx.cmd
use it if type is NAND_OP_CMD_INSTR
ctx.addr
use it if type is NAND_OP_ADDR_INSTR
ctx.data
use it if type is NAND_OP_DATA_IN_INSTR or NAND_OP_DATA_OUT_INSTR
ctx.waitrdy
use it if type is NAND_OP_WAITRDY_INSTR
delay_ns
delay the controller should apply after the instruction has been issued on the bus. Most modern controllers have internal timings control logic, and in this case, the controller driver can ignore this field.
struct nand_subop

a sub operation

Definition

struct nand_subop {
  const struct nand_op_instr *instrs;
  unsigned int ninstrs;
  unsigned int first_instr_start_off;
  unsigned int last_instr_end_off;
};

Members

instrs
array of instructions
ninstrs
length of the instrs array
first_instr_start_off
offset to start from for the first instruction of the sub-operation
last_instr_end_off
offset to end at (excluded) for the last instruction of the sub-operation

Description

Both first_instr_start_off and last_instr_end_off only apply to data or address instructions.

When an operation cannot be handled as is by the NAND controller, it will be split by the parser into sub-operations which will be passed to the controller driver.

struct nand_op_parser_addr_constraints

Constraints for address instructions

Definition

struct nand_op_parser_addr_constraints {
  unsigned int maxcycles;
};

Members

maxcycles
maximum number of address cycles the controller can issue in a single step
struct nand_op_parser_data_constraints

Constraints for data instructions

Definition

struct nand_op_parser_data_constraints {
  unsigned int maxlen;
};

Members

maxlen
maximum data length that the controller can handle in a single step
struct nand_op_parser_pattern_elem

One element of a pattern

Definition

struct nand_op_parser_pattern_elem {
  enum nand_op_instr_type type;
  bool optional;
  union {
    struct nand_op_parser_addr_constraints addr;
    struct nand_op_parser_data_constraints data;
  } ctx;
};

Members

type
the instructuction type
optional
whether this element of the pattern is optional or mandatory
ctx
address or data constraint
ctx.addr
address constraint (number of cycles)
ctx.data
data constraint (data length)
struct nand_op_parser_pattern

NAND sub-operation pattern descriptor

Definition

struct nand_op_parser_pattern {
  const struct nand_op_parser_pattern_elem *elems;
  unsigned int nelems;
  int (*exec)(struct nand_chip *chip, const struct nand_subop *subop);
};

Members

elems
array of pattern elements
nelems
number of pattern elements in elems array
exec
the function that will issue a sub-operation

Description

A pattern is a list of elements, each element reprensenting one instruction with its constraints. The pattern itself is used by the core to match NAND chip operation with NAND controller operations. Once a match between a NAND controller operation pattern and a NAND chip operation (or a sub-set of a NAND operation) is found, the pattern ->:c:func:exec() hook is called so that the controller driver can issue the operation on the bus.

Controller drivers should declare as many patterns as they support and pass this list of patterns (created with the help of the following macro) to the nand_op_parser_exec_op() helper.

struct nand_op_parser

NAND controller operation parser descriptor

Definition

struct nand_op_parser {
  const struct nand_op_parser_pattern *patterns;
  unsigned int npatterns;
};

Members

patterns
array of supported patterns
npatterns
length of the patterns array

Description

The parser descriptor is just an array of supported patterns which will be iterated by nand_op_parser_exec_op() everytime it tries to execute an NAND operation (or tries to determine if a specific operation is supported).

It is worth mentioning that patterns will be tested in their declaration order, and the first match will be taken, so it's important to order patterns appropriately so that simple/inefficient patterns are placed at the end of the list. Usually, this is where you put single instruction patterns.

struct nand_operation

NAND operation descriptor

Definition

struct nand_operation {
  const struct nand_op_instr *instrs;
  unsigned int ninstrs;
};

Members

instrs
array of instructions to execute
ninstrs
length of the instrs array

Description

The actual operation structure that will be passed to chip->:c:func:exec_op().

struct nand_legacy

NAND chip legacy fields/hooks

Definition

struct nand_legacy {
  void __iomem *IO_ADDR_R;
  void __iomem *IO_ADDR_W;
  u8 (*read_byte)(struct nand_chip *chip);
  void (*write_byte)(struct nand_chip *chip, u8 byte);
  void (*write_buf)(struct nand_chip *chip, const u8 *buf, int len);
  void (*read_buf)(struct nand_chip *chip, u8 *buf, int len);
  void (*cmd_ctrl)(struct nand_chip *chip, int dat, unsigned int ctrl);
  void (*cmdfunc)(struct nand_chip *chip, unsigned command, int column, int page_addr);
  int (*dev_ready)(struct nand_chip *chip);
  int (*waitfunc)(struct nand_chip *chip);
  int (*block_bad)(struct nand_chip *chip, loff_t ofs);
  int (*block_markbad)(struct nand_chip *chip, loff_t ofs);
  int (*erase)(struct nand_chip *chip, int page);
  int (*set_features)(struct nand_chip *chip, int feature_addr, u8 *subfeature_para);
  int (*get_features)(struct nand_chip *chip, int feature_addr, u8 *subfeature_para);
  int chip_delay;
};

Members

IO_ADDR_R
address to read the 8 I/O lines of the flash device
IO_ADDR_W
address to write the 8 I/O lines of the flash device
read_byte
read one byte from the chip
write_byte
write a single byte to the chip on the low 8 I/O lines
write_buf
write data from the buffer to the chip
read_buf
read data from the chip into the buffer
cmd_ctrl
hardware specific function for controlling ALE/CLE/nCE. Also used to write command and address
cmdfunc
hardware specific function for writing commands to the chip.
dev_ready
hardware specific function for accessing device ready/busy line. If set to NULL no access to ready/busy is available and the ready/busy information is read from the chip status register.
waitfunc
hardware specific function for wait on ready.
block_bad
check if a block is bad, using OOB markers
block_markbad
mark a block bad
erase
erase function
set_features
set the NAND chip features
get_features
get the NAND chip features
chip_delay
chip dependent delay for transferring data from array to read regs (tR).

Description

If you look at this structure you're already wrong. These fields/hooks are all deprecated.

struct nand_chip

NAND Private Flash Chip Data

Definition

struct nand_chip {
  struct mtd_info mtd;
  struct nand_legacy legacy;
  void (*select_chip)(struct nand_chip *chip, int cs);
  int (*exec_op)(struct nand_chip *chip,const struct nand_operation *op, bool check_only);
  int (*setup_read_retry)(struct nand_chip *chip, int retry_mode);
  int (*setup_data_interface)(struct nand_chip *chip, int chipnr, const struct nand_data_interface *conf);
  unsigned int options;
  unsigned int bbt_options;
  int page_shift;
  int phys_erase_shift;
  int bbt_erase_shift;
  int chip_shift;
  int numchips;
  uint64_t chipsize;
  int pagemask;
  u8 *data_buf;
  int pagebuf;
  unsigned int pagebuf_bitflips;
  int subpagesize;
  uint8_t bits_per_cell;
  uint16_t ecc_strength_ds;
  uint16_t ecc_step_ds;
  int onfi_timing_mode_default;
  int badblockpos;
  int badblockbits;
  struct nand_id id;
  struct nand_parameters parameters;
  u16 max_bb_per_die;
  u32 blocks_per_die;
  struct nand_data_interface data_interface;
  int read_retries;
  flstate_t state;
  uint8_t *oob_poi;
  struct nand_controller *controller;
  struct nand_ecc_ctrl ecc;
  unsigned long buf_align;
  struct nand_controller dummy_controller;
  uint8_t *bbt;
  struct nand_bbt_descr *bbt_td;
  struct nand_bbt_descr *bbt_md;
  struct nand_bbt_descr *badblock_pattern;
  void *priv;
  struct {
    const struct nand_manufacturer *desc;
    void *priv;
  } manufacturer;
};

Members

mtd
MTD device registered to the MTD framework
legacy
All legacy fields/hooks. If you develop a new driver, don't even try to use any of these fields/hooks, and if you're modifying an existing driver that is using those fields/hooks, you should consider reworking the driver avoid using them.
select_chip
[REPLACEABLE] select chip nr
exec_op
controller specific method to execute NAND operations. This method replaces ->:c:func:cmdfunc(), ->legacy.{read,write}_{buf,byte,word}(), ->legacy.:c:func:dev_ready() and ->:c:func:waifunc().
setup_read_retry
[FLASHSPECIFIC] flash (vendor) specific function for setting the read-retry mode. Mostly needed for MLC NAND.
setup_data_interface
[OPTIONAL] setup the data interface and timing. If chipnr is set to NAND_DATA_IFACE_CHECK_ONLY this means the configuration should not be applied but only checked.
options
[BOARDSPECIFIC] various chip options. They can partly be set to inform nand_scan about special functionality. See the defines for further explanation.
bbt_options
[INTERN] bad block specific options. All options used here must come from bbm.h. By default, these options will be copied to the appropriate nand_bbt_descr's.
page_shift
[INTERN] number of address bits in a page (column address bits).
phys_erase_shift
[INTERN] number of address bits in a physical eraseblock
bbt_erase_shift
[INTERN] number of address bits in a bbt entry
chip_shift
[INTERN] number of address bits in one chip
numchips
[INTERN] number of physical chips
chipsize
[INTERN] the size of one chip for multichip arrays
pagemask
[INTERN] page number mask = number of (pages / chip) - 1
data_buf
[INTERN] buffer for data, size is (page size + oobsize).
pagebuf
[INTERN] holds the pagenumber which is currently in data_buf.
pagebuf_bitflips
[INTERN] holds the bitflip count for the page which is currently in data_buf.
subpagesize
[INTERN] holds the subpagesize
bits_per_cell
[INTERN] number of bits per cell. i.e., 1 means SLC.
ecc_strength_ds
[INTERN] ECC correctability from the datasheet. Minimum amount of bit errors per ecc_step_ds guaranteed to be correctable. If unknown, set to zero.
ecc_step_ds
[INTERN] ECC step required by the ecc_strength_ds, also from the datasheet. It is the recommended ECC step size, if known; if unknown, set to zero.
onfi_timing_mode_default
[INTERN] default ONFI timing mode. This field is set to the actually used ONFI mode if the chip is ONFI compliant or deduced from the datasheet if the NAND chip is not ONFI compliant.
badblockpos
[INTERN] position of the bad block marker in the oob area.
badblockbits
[INTERN] minimum number of set bits in a good block's bad block marker position; i.e., BBM == 11110111b is not bad when badblockbits == 7
id
[INTERN] holds NAND ID
parameters
[INTERN] holds generic parameters under an easily readable form.
max_bb_per_die
[INTERN] the max number of bad blocks each die of a this nand device will encounter their life times.
blocks_per_die
[INTERN] The number of PEBs in a die
data_interface
[INTERN] NAND interface timing information
read_retries
[INTERN] the number of read retry modes supported
state
[INTERN] the current state of the NAND device
oob_poi
"poison value buffer," used for laying out OOB data before writing
controller
[REPLACEABLE] a pointer to a hardware controller structure which is shared among multiple independent devices.
ecc
[BOARDSPECIFIC] ECC control structure
buf_align
minimum buffer alignment required by a platform
dummy_controller
dummy controller implementation for drivers that can only control a single chip
bbt
[INTERN] bad block table pointer
bbt_td
[REPLACEABLE] bad block table descriptor for flash lookup.
bbt_md
[REPLACEABLE] bad block table mirror descriptor
badblock_pattern
[REPLACEABLE] bad block scan pattern used for initial bad block scan.
priv
[OPTIONAL] pointer to private chip data
manufacturer
[INTERN] Contains manufacturer information
manufacturer.desc
[INTERN] Contains manufacturer's description
manufacturer.priv
[INTERN] Contains manufacturer private information
struct nand_flash_dev

NAND Flash Device ID Structure

Definition

struct nand_flash_dev {
  char *name;
  union {
    struct {
      uint8_t mfr_id;
      uint8_t dev_id;
    };
    uint8_t id[NAND_MAX_ID_LEN];
  };
  unsigned int pagesize;
  unsigned int chipsize;
  unsigned int erasesize;
  unsigned int options;
  uint16_t id_len;
  uint16_t oobsize;
  struct {
    uint16_t strength_ds;
    uint16_t step_ds;
  } ecc;
  int onfi_timing_mode_default;
};

Members

name
a human-readable name of the NAND chip
{unnamed_union}
anonymous
{unnamed_struct}
anonymous
mfr_id
manufecturer ID part of the full chip ID array (refers the same memory address as **id**[0])
dev_id
device ID part of the full chip ID array (refers the same memory address as **id**[1])
id
full device ID array
pagesize
size of the NAND page in bytes; if 0, then the real page size (as well as the eraseblock size) is determined from the extended NAND chip ID array)
chipsize
total chip size in MiB
erasesize
eraseblock size in bytes (determined from the extended ID if 0)
options
stores various chip bit options
id_len
The valid length of the id.
oobsize
OOB size
ecc
ECC correctability and step information from the datasheet.
ecc.strength_ds
The ECC correctability from the datasheet, same as the ecc_strength_ds in nand_chip{}.
ecc.step_ds
The ECC step required by the ecc.strength_ds, same as the ecc_step_ds in nand_chip{}, also from the datasheet. For example, the "4bit ECC for each 512Byte" can be set with NAND_ECC_INFO(4, 512).
onfi_timing_mode_default
the default ONFI timing mode entered after a NAND reset. Should be deduced from timings described in the datasheet.
int nand_opcode_8bits(unsigned int command)

Parameters

unsigned int command
opcode to check

Public Functions Provided

This chapter contains the autogenerated documentation of the NAND kernel API functions which are exported. Each function has a short description which is marked with an [XXX] identifier. See the chapter "Documentation hints" for an explanation.

int nand_soft_waitrdy(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned long timeout_ms)

Poll STATUS reg until RDY bit is set to 1

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip structure
unsigned long timeout_ms
Timeout in ms

Description

Poll the STATUS register using ->:c:func:exec_op() until the RDY bit becomes 1. If that does not happen whitin the specified timeout, -ETIMEDOUT is returned.

This helper is intended to be used when the controller does not have access to the NAND R/B pin.

Be aware that calling this helper from an ->:c:func:exec_op() implementation means ->:c:func:exec_op() must be re-entrant.

Return 0 if the NAND chip is ready, a negative error otherwise.

int nand_read_page_op(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned int page, unsigned int offset_in_page, void * buf, unsigned int len)

Do a READ PAGE operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
unsigned int page
page to read
unsigned int offset_in_page
offset within the page
void * buf
buffer used to store the data
unsigned int len
length of the buffer

Description

This function issues a READ PAGE operation. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_change_read_column_op(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned int offset_in_page, void * buf, unsigned int len, bool force_8bit)

Do a CHANGE READ COLUMN operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
unsigned int offset_in_page
offset within the page
void * buf
buffer used to store the data
unsigned int len
length of the buffer
bool force_8bit
force 8-bit bus access

Description

This function issues a CHANGE READ COLUMN operation. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_read_oob_op(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned int page, unsigned int offset_in_oob, void * buf, unsigned int len)

Do a READ OOB operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
unsigned int page
page to read
unsigned int offset_in_oob
offset within the OOB area
void * buf
buffer used to store the data
unsigned int len
length of the buffer

Description

This function issues a READ OOB operation. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_prog_page_begin_op(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned int page, unsigned int offset_in_page, const void * buf, unsigned int len)

starts a PROG PAGE operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
unsigned int page
page to write
unsigned int offset_in_page
offset within the page
const void * buf
buffer containing the data to write to the page
unsigned int len
length of the buffer

Description

This function issues the first half of a PROG PAGE operation. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_prog_page_end_op(struct nand_chip * chip)

ends a PROG PAGE operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip

Description

This function issues the second half of a PROG PAGE operation. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_prog_page_op(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned int page, unsigned int offset_in_page, const void * buf, unsigned int len)

Do a full PROG PAGE operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
unsigned int page
page to write
unsigned int offset_in_page
offset within the page
const void * buf
buffer containing the data to write to the page
unsigned int len
length of the buffer

Description

This function issues a full PROG PAGE operation. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_change_write_column_op(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned int offset_in_page, const void * buf, unsigned int len, bool force_8bit)

Do a CHANGE WRITE COLUMN operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
unsigned int offset_in_page
offset within the page
const void * buf
buffer containing the data to send to the NAND
unsigned int len
length of the buffer
bool force_8bit
force 8-bit bus access

Description

This function issues a CHANGE WRITE COLUMN operation. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_readid_op(struct nand_chip * chip, u8 addr, void * buf, unsigned int len)

Do a READID operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
u8 addr
address cycle to pass after the READID command
void * buf
buffer used to store the ID
unsigned int len
length of the buffer

Description

This function sends a READID command and reads back the ID returned by the NAND. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_status_op(struct nand_chip * chip, u8 * status)

Do a STATUS operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
u8 * status
out variable to store the NAND status

Description

This function sends a STATUS command and reads back the status returned by the NAND. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_erase_op(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned int eraseblock)

Do an erase operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
unsigned int eraseblock
block to erase

Description

This function sends an ERASE command and waits for the NAND to be ready before returning. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_reset_op(struct nand_chip * chip)

Do a reset operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip

Description

This function sends a RESET command and waits for the NAND to be ready before returning. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_read_data_op(struct nand_chip * chip, void * buf, unsigned int len, bool force_8bit)

Read data from the NAND

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
void * buf
buffer used to store the data
unsigned int len
length of the buffer
bool force_8bit
force 8-bit bus access

Description

This function does a raw data read on the bus. Usually used after launching another NAND operation like nand_read_page_op(). This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_write_data_op(struct nand_chip * chip, const void * buf, unsigned int len, bool force_8bit)

Write data from the NAND

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
const void * buf
buffer containing the data to send on the bus
unsigned int len
length of the buffer
bool force_8bit
force 8-bit bus access

Description

This function does a raw data write on the bus. Usually used after launching another NAND operation like nand_write_page_begin_op(). This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_op_parser_exec_op(struct nand_chip * chip, const struct nand_op_parser * parser, const struct nand_operation * op, bool check_only)

exec_op parser

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
the NAND chip
const struct nand_op_parser * parser
patterns description provided by the controller driver
const struct nand_operation * op
the NAND operation to address
bool check_only
when true, the function only checks if op can be handled but does not execute the operation

Description

Helper function designed to ease integration of NAND controller drivers that only support a limited set of instruction sequences. The supported sequences are described in parser, and the framework takes care of splitting op into multiple sub-operations (if required) and pass them back to the ->:c:func:exec() callback of the matching pattern if check_only is set to false.

NAND controller drivers should call this function from their own ->:c:func:exec_op() implementation.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise. A failure can be caused by an unsupported operation (none of the supported patterns is able to handle the requested operation), or an error returned by one of the matching pattern->:c:func:exec() hook.

unsigned int nand_subop_get_addr_start_off(const struct nand_subop * subop, unsigned int instr_idx)

Get the start offset in an address array

Parameters

const struct nand_subop * subop
The entire sub-operation
unsigned int instr_idx
Index of the instruction inside the sub-operation

Description

During driver development, one could be tempted to directly use the ->addr.addrs field of address instructions. This is wrong as address instructions might be split.

Given an address instruction, returns the offset of the first cycle to issue.

unsigned int nand_subop_get_num_addr_cyc(const struct nand_subop * subop, unsigned int instr_idx)

Get the remaining address cycles to assert

Parameters

const struct nand_subop * subop
The entire sub-operation
unsigned int instr_idx
Index of the instruction inside the sub-operation

Description

During driver development, one could be tempted to directly use the ->addr->naddrs field of a data instruction. This is wrong as instructions might be split.

Given an address instruction, returns the number of address cycle to issue.

unsigned int nand_subop_get_data_start_off(const struct nand_subop * subop, unsigned int instr_idx)

Get the start offset in a data array

Parameters

const struct nand_subop * subop
The entire sub-operation
unsigned int instr_idx
Index of the instruction inside the sub-operation

Description

During driver development, one could be tempted to directly use the ->data->buf.{in,out} field of data instructions. This is wrong as data instructions might be split.

Given a data instruction, returns the offset to start from.

unsigned int nand_subop_get_data_len(const struct nand_subop * subop, unsigned int instr_idx)

Get the number of bytes to retrieve

Parameters

const struct nand_subop * subop
The entire sub-operation
unsigned int instr_idx
Index of the instruction inside the sub-operation

Description

During driver development, one could be tempted to directly use the ->data->len field of a data instruction. This is wrong as data instructions might be split.

Returns the length of the chunk of data to send/receive.

int nand_reset(struct nand_chip * chip, int chipnr)

Reset and initialize a NAND device

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
int chipnr
Internal die id

Description

Save the timings data structure, then apply SDR timings mode 0 (see nand_reset_data_interface for details), do the reset operation, and apply back the previous timings.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_check_erased_ecc_chunk(void * data, int datalen, void * ecc, int ecclen, void * extraoob, int extraooblen, int bitflips_threshold)

check if an ECC chunk contains (almost) only 0xff data

Parameters

void * data
data buffer to test
int datalen
data length
void * ecc
ECC buffer
int ecclen
ECC length
void * extraoob
extra OOB buffer
int extraooblen
extra OOB length
int bitflips_threshold
maximum number of bitflips

Description

Check if a data buffer and its associated ECC and OOB data contains only 0xff pattern, which means the underlying region has been erased and is ready to be programmed. The bitflips_threshold specify the maximum number of bitflips before considering the region as not erased.

Note

1/ ECC algorithms are working on pre-defined block sizes which are usually
different from the NAND page size. When fixing bitflips, ECC engines will report the number of errors per chunk, and the NAND core infrastructure expect you to return the maximum number of bitflips for the whole page. This is why you should always use this function on a single chunk and not on the whole page. After checking each chunk you should update your max_bitflips value accordingly.
2/ When checking for bitflips in erased pages you should not only check
the payload data but also their associated ECC data, because a user might have programmed almost all bits to 1 but a few. In this case, we shouldn't consider the chunk as erased, and checking ECC bytes prevent this case.
3/ The extraoob argument is optional, and should be used if some of your OOB
data are protected by the ECC engine. It could also be used if you support subpages and want to attach some extra OOB data to an ECC chunk.

Returns a positive number of bitflips less than or equal to bitflips_threshold, or -ERROR_CODE for bitflips in excess of the threshold. In case of success, the passed buffers are filled with 0xff.

int nand_read_page_raw(struct nand_chip * chip, uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[INTERN] read raw page data without ecc

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
uint8_t * buf
buffer to store read data
int oob_required
caller requires OOB data read to chip->oob_poi
int page
page number to read

Description

Not for syndrome calculating ECC controllers, which use a special oob layout.

int nand_read_oob_std(struct nand_chip * chip, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] the most common OOB data read function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
int page
page number to read
int nand_write_oob_std(struct nand_chip * chip, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] the most common OOB data write function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
int page
page number to write
int nand_write_page_raw(struct nand_chip * chip, const uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[INTERN] raw page write function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
const uint8_t * buf
data buffer
int oob_required
must write chip->oob_poi to OOB
int page
page number to write

Description

Not for syndrome calculating ECC controllers, which use a special oob layout.

int nand_ecc_choose_conf(struct nand_chip * chip, const struct nand_ecc_caps * caps, int oobavail)

Set the ECC strength and ECC step size

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
const struct nand_ecc_caps * caps
ECC engine caps info structure
int oobavail
OOB size that the ECC engine can use

Description

Choose the ECC configuration according to following logic

  1. If both ECC step size and ECC strength are already set (usually by DT) then check if it is supported by this controller.
  2. If NAND_ECC_MAXIMIZE is set, then select maximum ECC strength.
  3. Otherwise, try to match the ECC step size and ECC strength closest to the chip's requirement. If available OOB size can't fit the chip requirement then fallback to the maximum ECC step size and ECC strength.

On success, the chosen ECC settings are set.

int nand_scan_with_ids(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned int maxchips, struct nand_flash_dev * ids)

[NAND Interface] Scan for the NAND device

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
unsigned int maxchips
number of chips to scan for.
struct nand_flash_dev * ids
optional flash IDs table

Description

This fills out all the uninitialized function pointers with the defaults. The flash ID is read and the mtd/chip structures are filled with the appropriate values.

void nand_cleanup(struct nand_chip * chip)

[NAND Interface] Free resources held by the NAND device

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
void nand_release(struct nand_chip * chip)

[NAND Interface] Unregister the MTD device and free resources held by the NAND device

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
void __nand_calculate_ecc(const unsigned char * buf, unsigned int eccsize, unsigned char * code, bool sm_order)

[NAND Interface] Calculate 3-byte ECC for 256/512-byte block

Parameters

const unsigned char * buf
input buffer with raw data
unsigned int eccsize
data bytes per ECC step (256 or 512)
unsigned char * code
output buffer with ECC
bool sm_order
Smart Media byte ordering
int nand_calculate_ecc(struct nand_chip * chip, const unsigned char * buf, unsigned char * code)

[NAND Interface] Calculate 3-byte ECC for 256/512-byte block

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
const unsigned char * buf
input buffer with raw data
unsigned char * code
output buffer with ECC
int __nand_correct_data(unsigned char * buf, unsigned char * read_ecc, unsigned char * calc_ecc, unsigned int eccsize, bool sm_order)

[NAND Interface] Detect and correct bit error(s)

Parameters

unsigned char * buf
raw data read from the chip
unsigned char * read_ecc
ECC from the chip
unsigned char * calc_ecc
the ECC calculated from raw data
unsigned int eccsize
data bytes per ECC step (256 or 512)
bool sm_order
Smart Media byte order

Description

Detect and correct a 1 bit error for eccsize byte block

int nand_correct_data(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned char * buf, unsigned char * read_ecc, unsigned char * calc_ecc)

[NAND Interface] Detect and correct bit error(s)

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
unsigned char * buf
raw data read from the chip
unsigned char * read_ecc
ECC from the chip
unsigned char * calc_ecc
the ECC calculated from raw data

Description

Detect and correct a 1 bit error for 256/512 byte block

Internal Functions Provided

This chapter contains the autogenerated documentation of the NAND driver internal functions. Each function has a short description which is marked with an [XXX] identifier. See the chapter "Documentation hints" for an explanation. The functions marked with [DEFAULT] might be relevant for a board driver developer.

void nand_release_device(struct mtd_info * mtd)

[GENERIC] release chip

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure

Description

Release chip lock and wake up anyone waiting on the device.

int nand_block_bad(struct nand_chip * chip, loff_t ofs)

[DEFAULT] Read bad block marker from the chip

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
loff_t ofs
offset from device start

Description

Check, if the block is bad.

int nand_default_block_markbad(struct nand_chip * chip, loff_t ofs)

[DEFAULT] mark a block bad via bad block marker

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
loff_t ofs
offset from device start

Description

This is the default implementation, which can be overridden by a hardware specific driver. It provides the details for writing a bad block marker to a block.

int nand_markbad_bbm(struct nand_chip * chip, loff_t ofs)

mark a block by updating the BBM

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
loff_t ofs
offset of the block to mark bad
int nand_block_markbad_lowlevel(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t ofs)

mark a block bad

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t ofs
offset from device start

Description

This function performs the generic NAND bad block marking steps (i.e., bad block table(s) and/or marker(s)). We only allow the hardware driver to specify how to write bad block markers to OOB (chip->legacy.block_markbad).

We try operations in the following order:

  1. erase the affected block, to allow OOB marker to be written cleanly
  2. write bad block marker to OOB area of affected block (unless flag NAND_BBT_NO_OOB_BBM is present)
  3. update the BBT

Note that we retain the first error encountered in (2) or (3), finish the procedures, and dump the error in the end.

int nand_check_wp(struct mtd_info * mtd)

[GENERIC] check if the chip is write protected

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure

Description

Check, if the device is write protected. The function expects, that the device is already selected.

int nand_block_isreserved(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t ofs)

[GENERIC] Check if a block is marked reserved.

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t ofs
offset from device start

Description

Check if the block is marked as reserved.

int nand_block_checkbad(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t ofs, int allowbbt)

[GENERIC] Check if a block is marked bad

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t ofs
offset from device start
int allowbbt
1, if its allowed to access the bbt area

Description

Check, if the block is bad. Either by reading the bad block table or calling of the scan function.

void panic_nand_get_device(struct nand_chip * chip, struct mtd_info * mtd, int new_state)

[GENERIC] Get chip for selected access

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
the nand chip descriptor
struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
int new_state
the state which is requested

Description

Used when in panic, no locks are taken.

int nand_get_device(struct mtd_info * mtd, int new_state)

[GENERIC] Get chip for selected access

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
int new_state
the state which is requested

Description

Get the device and lock it for exclusive access

void panic_nand_wait(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned long timeo)

[GENERIC] wait until the command is done

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip structure
unsigned long timeo
timeout

Description

Wait for command done. This is a helper function for nand_wait used when we are in interrupt context. May happen when in panic and trying to write an oops through mtdoops.

int nand_reset_data_interface(struct nand_chip * chip, int chipnr)

Reset data interface and timings

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
int chipnr
Internal die id

Description

Reset the Data interface and timings to ONFI mode 0.

Returns 0 for success or negative error code otherwise.

int nand_setup_data_interface(struct nand_chip * chip, int chipnr)

Setup the best data interface and timings

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
int chipnr
Internal die id

Description

Find and configure the best data interface and NAND timings supported by the chip and the driver. First tries to retrieve supported timing modes from ONFI information, and if the NAND chip does not support ONFI, relies on the ->onfi_timing_mode_default specified in the nand_ids table.

Returns 0 for success or negative error code otherwise.

int nand_init_data_interface(struct nand_chip * chip)

find the best data interface and timings

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip

Description

Find the best data interface and NAND timings supported by the chip and the driver. First tries to retrieve supported timing modes from ONFI information, and if the NAND chip does not support ONFI, relies on the ->onfi_timing_mode_default specified in the nand_ids table. After this function nand_chip->data_interface is initialized with the best timing mode available.

Returns 0 for success or negative error code otherwise.

int nand_fill_column_cycles(struct nand_chip * chip, u8 * addrs, unsigned int offset_in_page)

fill the column cycles of an address

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
u8 * addrs
Array of address cycles to fill
unsigned int offset_in_page
The offset in the page

Description

Fills the first or the first two bytes of the addrs field depending on the NAND bus width and the page size.

Returns the number of cycles needed to encode the column, or a negative error code in case one of the arguments is invalid.

int nand_read_param_page_op(struct nand_chip * chip, u8 page, void * buf, unsigned int len)

Do a READ PARAMETER PAGE operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
u8 page
parameter page to read
void * buf
buffer used to store the data
unsigned int len
length of the buffer

Description

This function issues a READ PARAMETER PAGE operation. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_exit_status_op(struct nand_chip * chip)

Exit a STATUS operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip

Description

This function sends a READ0 command to cancel the effect of the STATUS command to avoid reading only the status until a new read command is sent.

This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_set_features_op(struct nand_chip * chip, u8 feature, const void * data)

Do a SET FEATURES operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
u8 feature
feature id
const void * data
4 bytes of data

Description

This function sends a SET FEATURES command and waits for the NAND to be ready before returning. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

int nand_get_features_op(struct nand_chip * chip, u8 feature, void * data)

Do a GET FEATURES operation

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
The NAND chip
u8 feature
feature id
void * data
4 bytes of data

Description

This function sends a GET FEATURES command and waits for the NAND to be ready before returning. This function does not select/unselect the CS line.

Returns 0 on success, a negative error code otherwise.

struct nand_op_parser_ctx

Context used by the parser

Definition

struct nand_op_parser_ctx {
  const struct nand_op_instr *instrs;
  unsigned int ninstrs;
  struct nand_subop subop;
};

Members

instrs
array of all the instructions that must be addressed
ninstrs
length of the instrs array
subop
Sub-operation to be passed to the NAND controller

Description

This structure is used by the core to split NAND operations into sub-operations that can be handled by the NAND controller.

bool nand_op_parser_must_split_instr(const struct nand_op_parser_pattern_elem * pat, const struct nand_op_instr * instr, unsigned int * start_offset)

Checks if an instruction must be split

Parameters

const struct nand_op_parser_pattern_elem * pat
the parser pattern element that matches instr
const struct nand_op_instr * instr
pointer to the instruction to check
unsigned int * start_offset
this is an in/out parameter. If instr has already been split, then start_offset is the offset from which to start (either an address cycle or an offset in the data buffer). Conversely, if the function returns true (ie. instr must be split), this parameter is updated to point to the first data/address cycle that has not been taken care of.

Description

Some NAND controllers are limited and cannot send X address cycles with a unique operation, or cannot read/write more than Y bytes at the same time. In this case, split the instruction that does not fit in a single controller-operation into two or more chunks.

Returns true if the instruction must be split, false otherwise. The start_offset parameter is also updated to the offset at which the next bundle of instruction must start (if an address or a data instruction).

bool nand_op_parser_match_pat(const struct nand_op_parser_pattern * pat, struct nand_op_parser_ctx * ctx)

Checks if a pattern matches the instructions remaining in the parser context

Parameters

const struct nand_op_parser_pattern * pat
the pattern to test
struct nand_op_parser_ctx * ctx
the parser context structure to match with the pattern pat

Description

Check if pat matches the set or a sub-set of instructions remaining in ctx. Returns true if this is the case, false ortherwise. When true is returned, ctx->subop is updated with the set of instructions to be passed to the controller driver.

int nand_get_features(struct nand_chip * chip, int addr, u8 * subfeature_param)

wrapper to perform a GET_FEATURE

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip info structure
int addr
feature address
u8 * subfeature_param
the subfeature parameters, a four bytes array

Description

Returns 0 for success, a negative error otherwise. Returns -ENOTSUPP if the operation cannot be handled.

int nand_set_features(struct nand_chip * chip, int addr, u8 * subfeature_param)

wrapper to perform a SET_FEATURE

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip info structure
int addr
feature address
u8 * subfeature_param
the subfeature parameters, a four bytes array

Description

Returns 0 for success, a negative error otherwise. Returns -ENOTSUPP if the operation cannot be handled.

int nand_check_erased_buf(void * buf, int len, int bitflips_threshold)

check if a buffer contains (almost) only 0xff data

Parameters

void * buf
buffer to test
int len
buffer length
int bitflips_threshold
maximum number of bitflips

Description

Check if a buffer contains only 0xff, which means the underlying region has been erased and is ready to be programmed. The bitflips_threshold specify the maximum number of bitflips before considering the region is not erased.

Note

The logic of this function has been extracted from the memweight implementation, except that nand_check_erased_buf function exit before testing the whole buffer if the number of bitflips exceed the bitflips_threshold value.

Returns a positive number of bitflips less than or equal to bitflips_threshold, or -ERROR_CODE for bitflips in excess of the threshold.

int nand_read_page_raw_notsupp(struct nand_chip * chip, u8 * buf, int oob_required, int page)

dummy read raw page function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
u8 * buf
buffer to store read data
int oob_required
caller requires OOB data read to chip->oob_poi
int page
page number to read

Description

Returns -ENOTSUPP unconditionally.

int nand_read_page_raw_syndrome(struct nand_chip * chip, uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[INTERN] read raw page data without ecc

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
uint8_t * buf
buffer to store read data
int oob_required
caller requires OOB data read to chip->oob_poi
int page
page number to read

Description

We need a special oob layout and handling even when OOB isn't used.

int nand_read_page_swecc(struct nand_chip * chip, uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] software ECC based page read function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
uint8_t * buf
buffer to store read data
int oob_required
caller requires OOB data read to chip->oob_poi
int page
page number to read
int nand_read_subpage(struct nand_chip * chip, uint32_t data_offs, uint32_t readlen, uint8_t * bufpoi, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] ECC based sub-page read function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
uint32_t data_offs
offset of requested data within the page
uint32_t readlen
data length
uint8_t * bufpoi
buffer to store read data
int page
page number to read
int nand_read_page_hwecc(struct nand_chip * chip, uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] hardware ECC based page read function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
uint8_t * buf
buffer to store read data
int oob_required
caller requires OOB data read to chip->oob_poi
int page
page number to read

Description

Not for syndrome calculating ECC controllers which need a special oob layout.

int nand_read_page_hwecc_oob_first(struct nand_chip * chip, uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] hw ecc, read oob first

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
uint8_t * buf
buffer to store read data
int oob_required
caller requires OOB data read to chip->oob_poi
int page
page number to read

Description

Hardware ECC for large page chips, require OOB to be read first. For this ECC mode, the write_page method is re-used from ECC_HW. These methods read/write ECC from the OOB area, unlike the ECC_HW_SYNDROME support with multiple ECC steps, follows the "infix ECC" scheme and reads/writes ECC from the data area, by overwriting the NAND manufacturer bad block markings.

int nand_read_page_syndrome(struct nand_chip * chip, uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] hardware ECC syndrome based page read

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
uint8_t * buf
buffer to store read data
int oob_required
caller requires OOB data read to chip->oob_poi
int page
page number to read

Description

The hw generator calculates the error syndrome automatically. Therefore we need a special oob layout and handling.

uint8_t * nand_transfer_oob(struct mtd_info * mtd, uint8_t * oob, struct mtd_oob_ops * ops, size_t len)

[INTERN] Transfer oob to client buffer

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
mtd info structure
uint8_t * oob
oob destination address
struct mtd_oob_ops * ops
oob ops structure
size_t len
size of oob to transfer
int nand_setup_read_retry(struct nand_chip * chip, int retry_mode)

[INTERN] Set the READ RETRY mode

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
int retry_mode
the retry mode to use

Description

Some vendors supply a special command to shift the Vt threshold, to be used when there are too many bitflips in a page (i.e., ECC error). After setting a new threshold, the host should retry reading the page.

int nand_do_read_ops(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t from, struct mtd_oob_ops * ops)

[INTERN] Read data with ECC

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t from
offset to read from
struct mtd_oob_ops * ops
oob ops structure

Description

Internal function. Called with chip held.

int nand_read_oob_syndrome(struct nand_chip * chip, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] OOB data read function for HW ECC with syndromes

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
int page
page number to read
int nand_write_oob_syndrome(struct nand_chip * chip, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] OOB data write function for HW ECC with syndrome - only for large page flash

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
int page
page number to write
int nand_do_read_oob(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t from, struct mtd_oob_ops * ops)

[INTERN] NAND read out-of-band

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t from
offset to read from
struct mtd_oob_ops * ops
oob operations description structure

Description

NAND read out-of-band data from the spare area.

int nand_read_oob(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t from, struct mtd_oob_ops * ops)

[MTD Interface] NAND read data and/or out-of-band

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t from
offset to read from
struct mtd_oob_ops * ops
oob operation description structure

Description

NAND read data and/or out-of-band data.

int nand_write_page_raw_notsupp(struct nand_chip * chip, const u8 * buf, int oob_required, int page)

dummy raw page write function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
const u8 * buf
data buffer
int oob_required
must write chip->oob_poi to OOB
int page
page number to write

Description

Returns -ENOTSUPP unconditionally.

int nand_write_page_raw_syndrome(struct nand_chip * chip, const uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[INTERN] raw page write function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
const uint8_t * buf
data buffer
int oob_required
must write chip->oob_poi to OOB
int page
page number to write

Description

We need a special oob layout and handling even when ECC isn't checked.

int nand_write_page_swecc(struct nand_chip * chip, const uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] software ECC based page write function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
const uint8_t * buf
data buffer
int oob_required
must write chip->oob_poi to OOB
int page
page number to write
int nand_write_page_hwecc(struct nand_chip * chip, const uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] hardware ECC based page write function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
const uint8_t * buf
data buffer
int oob_required
must write chip->oob_poi to OOB
int page
page number to write
int nand_write_subpage_hwecc(struct nand_chip * chip, uint32_t offset, uint32_t data_len, const uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] hardware ECC based subpage write

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
uint32_t offset
column address of subpage within the page
uint32_t data_len
data length
const uint8_t * buf
data buffer
int oob_required
must write chip->oob_poi to OOB
int page
page number to write
int nand_write_page_syndrome(struct nand_chip * chip, const uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page)

[REPLACEABLE] hardware ECC syndrome based page write

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
const uint8_t * buf
data buffer
int oob_required
must write chip->oob_poi to OOB
int page
page number to write

Description

The hw generator calculates the error syndrome automatically. Therefore we need a special oob layout and handling.

int nand_write_page(struct mtd_info * mtd, struct nand_chip * chip, uint32_t offset, int data_len, const uint8_t * buf, int oob_required, int page, int raw)

write one page

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip descriptor
uint32_t offset
address offset within the page
int data_len
length of actual data to be written
const uint8_t * buf
the data to write
int oob_required
must write chip->oob_poi to OOB
int page
page number to write
int raw
use _raw version of write_page
uint8_t * nand_fill_oob(struct mtd_info * mtd, uint8_t * oob, size_t len, struct mtd_oob_ops * ops)

[INTERN] Transfer client buffer to oob

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
uint8_t * oob
oob data buffer
size_t len
oob data write length
struct mtd_oob_ops * ops
oob ops structure
int nand_do_write_ops(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t to, struct mtd_oob_ops * ops)

[INTERN] NAND write with ECC

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t to
offset to write to
struct mtd_oob_ops * ops
oob operations description structure

Description

NAND write with ECC.

int panic_nand_write(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t to, size_t len, size_t * retlen, const uint8_t * buf)

[MTD Interface] NAND write with ECC

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t to
offset to write to
size_t len
number of bytes to write
size_t * retlen
pointer to variable to store the number of written bytes
const uint8_t * buf
the data to write

Description

NAND write with ECC. Used when performing writes in interrupt context, this may for example be called by mtdoops when writing an oops while in panic.

int nand_do_write_oob(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t to, struct mtd_oob_ops * ops)

[MTD Interface] NAND write out-of-band

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t to
offset to write to
struct mtd_oob_ops * ops
oob operation description structure

Description

NAND write out-of-band.

int nand_write_oob(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t to, struct mtd_oob_ops * ops)

[MTD Interface] NAND write data and/or out-of-band

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t to
offset to write to
struct mtd_oob_ops * ops
oob operation description structure
int single_erase(struct nand_chip * chip, int page)

[GENERIC] NAND standard block erase command function

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
int page
the page address of the block which will be erased

Description

Standard erase command for NAND chips. Returns NAND status.

int nand_erase(struct mtd_info * mtd, struct erase_info * instr)

[MTD Interface] erase block(s)

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
struct erase_info * instr
erase instruction

Description

Erase one ore more blocks.

int nand_erase_nand(struct nand_chip * chip, struct erase_info * instr, int allowbbt)

[INTERN] erase block(s)

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
struct erase_info * instr
erase instruction
int allowbbt
allow erasing the bbt area

Description

Erase one ore more blocks.

void nand_sync(struct mtd_info * mtd)

[MTD Interface] sync

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure

Description

Sync is actually a wait for chip ready function.

int nand_block_isbad(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t offs)

[MTD Interface] Check if block at offset is bad

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t offs
offset relative to mtd start
int nand_block_markbad(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t ofs)

[MTD Interface] Mark block at the given offset as bad

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t ofs
offset relative to mtd start
int nand_max_bad_blocks(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t ofs, size_t len)

[MTD Interface] Max number of bad blocks for an mtd

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t ofs
offset relative to mtd start
size_t len
length of mtd
int nand_suspend(struct mtd_info * mtd)

[MTD Interface] Suspend the NAND flash

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
void nand_resume(struct mtd_info * mtd)

[MTD Interface] Resume the NAND flash

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
void nand_shutdown(struct mtd_info * mtd)

[MTD Interface] Finish the current NAND operation and prevent further operations

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
int nand_scan_ident(struct nand_chip * chip, unsigned int maxchips, struct nand_flash_dev * table)

Scan for the NAND device

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object
unsigned int maxchips
number of chips to scan for
struct nand_flash_dev * table
alternative NAND ID table

Description

This is the first phase of the normal nand_scan() function. It reads the flash ID and sets up MTD fields accordingly.

This helper used to be called directly from controller drivers that needed to tweak some ECC-related parameters before nand_scan_tail(). This separation prevented dynamic allocations during this phase which was unconvenient and as been banned for the benefit of the ->:c:func:init_ecc()/cleanup_ecc() hooks.

int nand_check_ecc_caps(struct nand_chip * chip, const struct nand_ecc_caps * caps, int oobavail)

check the sanity of preset ECC settings

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
const struct nand_ecc_caps * caps
ECC caps info structure
int oobavail
OOB size that the ECC engine can use

Description

When ECC step size and strength are already set, check if they are supported by the controller and the calculated ECC bytes fit within the chip's OOB. On success, the calculated ECC bytes is set.

int nand_match_ecc_req(struct nand_chip * chip, const struct nand_ecc_caps * caps, int oobavail)

meet the chip's requirement with least ECC bytes

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
const struct nand_ecc_caps * caps
ECC engine caps info structure
int oobavail
OOB size that the ECC engine can use

Description

If a chip's ECC requirement is provided, try to meet it with the least number of ECC bytes (i.e. with the largest number of OOB-free bytes). On success, the chosen ECC settings are set.

int nand_maximize_ecc(struct nand_chip * chip, const struct nand_ecc_caps * caps, int oobavail)

choose the max ECC strength available

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
nand chip info structure
const struct nand_ecc_caps * caps
ECC engine caps info structure
int oobavail
OOB size that the ECC engine can use

Description

Choose the max ECC strength that is supported on the controller, and can fit within the chip's OOB. On success, the chosen ECC settings are set.

int nand_scan_tail(struct nand_chip * chip)

Scan for the NAND device

Parameters

struct nand_chip * chip
NAND chip object

Description

This is the second phase of the normal nand_scan() function. It fills out all the uninitialized function pointers with the defaults and scans for a bad block table if appropriate.

int check_pattern(uint8_t * buf, int len, int paglen, struct nand_bbt_descr * td)

[GENERIC] check if a pattern is in the buffer

Parameters

uint8_t * buf
the buffer to search
int len
the length of buffer to search
int paglen
the pagelength
struct nand_bbt_descr * td
search pattern descriptor

Description

Check for a pattern at the given place. Used to search bad block tables and good / bad block identifiers.

int check_short_pattern(uint8_t * buf, struct nand_bbt_descr * td)

[GENERIC] check if a pattern is in the buffer

Parameters

uint8_t * buf
the buffer to search
struct nand_bbt_descr * td
search pattern descriptor

Description

Check for a pattern at the given place. Used to search bad block tables and good / bad block identifiers. Same as check_pattern, but no optional empty check.

u32 add_marker_len(struct nand_bbt_descr * td)

compute the length of the marker in data area

Parameters

struct nand_bbt_descr * td
BBT descriptor used for computation

Description

The length will be 0 if the marker is located in OOB area.

int read_bbt(struct mtd_info * mtd, uint8_t * buf, int page, int num, struct nand_bbt_descr * td, int offs)

[GENERIC] Read the bad block table starting from page

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
uint8_t * buf
temporary buffer
int page
the starting page
int num
the number of bbt descriptors to read
struct nand_bbt_descr * td
the bbt describtion table
int offs
block number offset in the table

Description

Read the bad block table starting from page.

int read_abs_bbt(struct mtd_info * mtd, uint8_t * buf, struct nand_bbt_descr * td, int chip)

[GENERIC] Read the bad block table starting at a given page

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
uint8_t * buf
temporary buffer
struct nand_bbt_descr * td
descriptor for the bad block table
int chip
read the table for a specific chip, -1 read all chips; applies only if NAND_BBT_PERCHIP option is set

Description

Read the bad block table for all chips starting at a given page. We assume that the bbt bits are in consecutive order.

int scan_read_oob(struct mtd_info * mtd, uint8_t * buf, loff_t offs, size_t len)

[GENERIC] Scan data+OOB region to buffer

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
uint8_t * buf
temporary buffer
loff_t offs
offset at which to scan
size_t len
length of data region to read

Description

Scan read data from data+OOB. May traverse multiple pages, interleaving page,OOB,page,OOB,... in buf. Completes transfer and returns the "strongest" ECC condition (error or bitflip). May quit on the first (non-ECC) error.

void read_abs_bbts(struct mtd_info * mtd, uint8_t * buf, struct nand_bbt_descr * td, struct nand_bbt_descr * md)

[GENERIC] Read the bad block table(s) for all chips starting at a given page

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
uint8_t * buf
temporary buffer
struct nand_bbt_descr * td
descriptor for the bad block table
struct nand_bbt_descr * md
descriptor for the bad block table mirror

Description

Read the bad block table(s) for all chips starting at a given page. We assume that the bbt bits are in consecutive order.

int create_bbt(struct mtd_info * mtd, uint8_t * buf, struct nand_bbt_descr * bd, int chip)

[GENERIC] Create a bad block table by scanning the device

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
uint8_t * buf
temporary buffer
struct nand_bbt_descr * bd
descriptor for the good/bad block search pattern
int chip
create the table for a specific chip, -1 read all chips; applies only if NAND_BBT_PERCHIP option is set

Description

Create a bad block table by scanning the device for the given good/bad block identify pattern.

int search_bbt(struct mtd_info * mtd, uint8_t * buf, struct nand_bbt_descr * td)

[GENERIC] scan the device for a specific bad block table

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
uint8_t * buf
temporary buffer
struct nand_bbt_descr * td
descriptor for the bad block table

Description

Read the bad block table by searching for a given ident pattern. Search is preformed either from the beginning up or from the end of the device downwards. The search starts always at the start of a block. If the option NAND_BBT_PERCHIP is given, each chip is searched for a bbt, which contains the bad block information of this chip. This is necessary to provide support for certain DOC devices.

The bbt ident pattern resides in the oob area of the first page in a block.

void search_read_bbts(struct mtd_info * mtd, uint8_t * buf, struct nand_bbt_descr * td, struct nand_bbt_descr * md)

[GENERIC] scan the device for bad block table(s)

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
uint8_t * buf
temporary buffer
struct nand_bbt_descr * td
descriptor for the bad block table
struct nand_bbt_descr * md
descriptor for the bad block table mirror

Description

Search and read the bad block table(s).

int get_bbt_block(struct nand_chip * this, struct nand_bbt_descr * td, struct nand_bbt_descr * md, int chip)

Get the first valid eraseblock suitable to store a BBT

Parameters

struct nand_chip * this
the NAND device
struct nand_bbt_descr * td
the BBT description
struct nand_bbt_descr * md
the mirror BBT descriptor
int chip
the CHIP selector

Description

This functions returns a positive block number pointing a valid eraseblock suitable to store a BBT (i.e. in the range reserved for BBT), or -ENOSPC if all blocks are already used of marked bad. If td->pages[chip] was already pointing to a valid block we re-use it, otherwise we search for the next valid one.

void mark_bbt_block_bad(struct nand_chip * this, struct nand_bbt_descr * td, int chip, int block)

Mark one of the block reserved for BBT bad

Parameters

struct nand_chip * this
the NAND device
struct nand_bbt_descr * td
the BBT description
int chip
the CHIP selector
int block
the BBT block to mark

Description

Blocks reserved for BBT can become bad. This functions is an helper to mark such blocks as bad. It takes care of updating the in-memory BBT, marking the block as bad using a bad block marker and invalidating the associated td->pages[] entry.

int write_bbt(struct mtd_info * mtd, uint8_t * buf, struct nand_bbt_descr * td, struct nand_bbt_descr * md, int chipsel)

[GENERIC] (Re)write the bad block table

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
uint8_t * buf
temporary buffer
struct nand_bbt_descr * td
descriptor for the bad block table
struct nand_bbt_descr * md
descriptor for the bad block table mirror
int chipsel
selector for a specific chip, -1 for all

Description

(Re)write the bad block table.

int nand_memory_bbt(struct mtd_info * mtd, struct nand_bbt_descr * bd)

[GENERIC] create a memory based bad block table

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
struct nand_bbt_descr * bd
descriptor for the good/bad block search pattern

Description

The function creates a memory based bbt by scanning the device for manufacturer / software marked good / bad blocks.

int check_create(struct mtd_info * mtd, uint8_t * buf, struct nand_bbt_descr * bd)

[GENERIC] create and write bbt(s) if necessary

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
uint8_t * buf
temporary buffer
struct nand_bbt_descr * bd
descriptor for the good/bad block search pattern

Description

The function checks the results of the previous call to read_bbt and creates / updates the bbt(s) if necessary. Creation is necessary if no bbt was found for the chip/device. Update is necessary if one of the tables is missing or the version nr. of one table is less than the other.

void mark_bbt_region(struct mtd_info * mtd, struct nand_bbt_descr * td)

[GENERIC] mark the bad block table regions

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
struct nand_bbt_descr * td
bad block table descriptor

Description

The bad block table regions are marked as "bad" to prevent accidental erasures / writes. The regions are identified by the mark 0x02.

void verify_bbt_descr(struct mtd_info * mtd, struct nand_bbt_descr * bd)

verify the bad block description

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
struct nand_bbt_descr * bd
the table to verify

Description

This functions performs a few sanity checks on the bad block description table.

int nand_scan_bbt(struct mtd_info * mtd, struct nand_bbt_descr * bd)

[NAND Interface] scan, find, read and maybe create bad block table(s)

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
struct nand_bbt_descr * bd
descriptor for the good/bad block search pattern

Description

The function checks, if a bad block table(s) is/are already available. If not it scans the device for manufacturer marked good / bad blocks and writes the bad block table(s) to the selected place.

The bad block table memory is allocated here. It must be freed by calling the nand_free_bbt function.

int nand_update_bbt(struct mtd_info * mtd, loff_t offs)

update bad block table(s)

Parameters

struct mtd_info * mtd
MTD device structure
loff_t offs
the offset of the newly marked block

Description

The function updates the bad block table(s).

int nand_create_badblock_pattern(struct nand_chip * this)

[INTERN] Creates a BBT descriptor structure

Parameters

struct nand_chip * this
NAND chip to create descriptor for

Description

This function allocates and initializes a nand_bbt_descr for BBM detection based on the properties of this. The new descriptor is stored in this->badblock_pattern. Thus, this->badblock_pattern should be NULL when passed to this function.

int nand_isreserved_bbt(struct nand_chip * this, loff_t offs)

[NAND Interface] Check if a block is reserved

Parameters

struct nand_chip * this
NAND chip object
loff_t offs
offset in the device
int nand_isbad_bbt(struct nand_chip * this, loff_t offs, int allowbbt)

[NAND Interface] Check if a block is bad

Parameters

struct nand_chip * this
NAND chip object
loff_t offs
offset in the device
int allowbbt
allow access to bad block table region
int nand_markbad_bbt(struct nand_chip * this, loff_t offs)

[NAND Interface] Mark a block bad in the BBT

Parameters

struct nand_chip * this
NAND chip object
loff_t offs
offset of the bad block

Credits

The following people have contributed to the NAND driver:

  1. Steven J. Hillsjhill@realitydiluted.com
  2. David Woodhousedwmw2@infradead.org
  3. Thomas Gleixnertglx@linutronix.de

A lot of users have provided bugfixes, improvements and helping hands for testing. Thanks a lot.

The following people have contributed to this document:

  1. Thomas Gleixnertglx@linutronix.de